Apple

Malus domestica Borkh.

Synonyms - Pirus malus, Pyrus malus.
Probably derived from a cross between Malus sylvestris and Malus pumila.

Order: Rosales

Family: Malaceae (Sub Family: Pomoideae)

Names:

Malus
Domestica because it is the domestic form.
Apple

Other Names:

Summary:

A mid sized tree bearing the common apple.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two.

Leaves:

Stipules -
Petiole -
Blade -

Stems:

Flower head:

Flowers:

Ovary -
Calyx -
Perianth -
Sepals -
Petals -
Stamens -
Anthers -

Fruit:

Red, green or golden, globular, 60-120 mm diameter, fleshy with a thin skin and seeds in the centre.

Seeds:

Dark, tear shaped.

Roots:

Usually planted on vigorous rootstocks.

Key Characters:

Biology:

Life cycle:

Perennial, deciduous tree or shrub.

Physiology:

Greater cold tolerance than most orchard trees.
Sensitive to frost after buds start to open.
Some varieties sensitive to sun scald.
Usually cross pollinated.

Reproduction:

By seed or intentional planting.

Flowering times:

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

Hybrids:

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Origin and History:

Eurasia.
The Granny Smith apple was selected by Anne Smith in 1868 from plants that grew from Tasmanian Apple cores thrown into her backyard. It was kept because of the longevity of its fruit.

Distribution:

ACT, NSW, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.

Blue = Malus X domestica. Red = Malus domestica.
Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Cool temperate. Warm temperate.
Requires an annual rainfall of 635 mm with irrigation or 760 mm for dry land production.

Soil:

Tolerant of a wider range of soils than most other orchard trees. Prefers deep, well drained loam or clay loam soils.

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Important fruit crop.
Honey plant.
Fodder.

Detrimental:

Toxicity:

Toxic if consumed in large quantities by cattle and horses. May be caused by fruit or occasionally leaves.
Leaves and seeds may cause HCN poisoning. A cup full of seeds has killed a man.

Symptoms:

Rapid fruit ingestion may cause loss of appetite, dullness, weakness, staggering and death.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Herbicide resistance:

None reported.

Biological Control:

Pests include Apple Dimpling Bug, Codling Moth, European Red Mite, Light Brown Apple Moth, Oyster Shell Scale, San Jose Scale, Thrips and Two Spotted Mite.
Diseases include Armillariella, Black Spot, Collar Rot, Powdery Mildew and Silver Leaf.

Related plants:

Wild Crab Apple (Malus sylvestris)

Plants of similar appearance:

References:

Everist, S.L. (1974). Poisonous Plants of Australia. (Angus and Robertson, Sydney). P606.

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #794.1.

Reid, R.L. (1990) The Manual of Australian Agriculture. (Butterworths, Sydney). P178.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.