Ball mustard

Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv.

Family: Brassicaceae.

Names:

Neslia commemorates J.A.N. Denesle a French botanist.
Ball mustard because it has ball shaped fruit and it is a member of the mustard family.

Summary:

An rosette forming, erect stemmed herb with small yellow flowers and ball shaped, single seeded pods.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two. Oval. Tip slightly indented. Edges smooth and rounded. Base tapered. Hairless. Short stalk. One cotyledon sticks up the other down. Incumbent.

First leaves:

Oval. Tip pointed. Edges slightly toothed. Base tapered. Prominent central vein. Hairy.

Leaves:

Alternate. Forms a rosette.
Petiole - Slightly shorter than the blade on lower leaves to none on the upper leaves.
Blade - Flattened oval and large. Tip pointed. Sides almost smooth or toothed and not lobed. Base tapered. Surface hairy.
Stem leaves - Smaller, arrow shaped, clasp stem. Tip pointed. Sides convex. Base clasping.

Stems:

Slender, erect, up to 800 mm tall, branching. Hairy with branched and star type hairs.

Flower head:

Slender, naked raceme that is initially dense then elongates. Flowers borne on slender stalks.

Flowers:

Yellow, small.
Ovary - Egg shaped, 4 ovules. Obvious, persistent style
Sepals - Almost erect.
Petals - Yellow, rounded tip.
Stamens -
Anthers -

Fruit:

Greyish brown, globular or slightly flattened, 2-6 mm diameter, beaked, dimpled and usually one seeded. Remain attached to stem by a fine stalk that is 5-8 mm long. Doesn't release seed at maturity. Valves hard, 1 nerved, network pattern on the surface.

Seeds:

Yellow brown, spherical, 2-6 mm diameter. Tip pointed. Surface hairless, ridged and with a network pattern. Base has the stalk remnant.

Roots:

Well developed taproot.

Key Characters:

Ball shaped pods.

Biology:

Life cycle:

Annual. Germinates autumn to winter. Forms a basal rosette of leaves over winter. Flowers late-winter to spring. Dies in summer.

Physiology:

Reproduction:

By seed.

Flowering times:

October to November in SA.

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

None.

Hybrids:

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Spread by seed and as a contaminant of agricultural produce and seeds.

Origin and History:

Central Europe. Mediterranean. South west Asia

Distribution:

SA, VIC.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate.

Soil:

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Detrimental:

Weed of crops.

Toxicity:

Not recorded as toxic.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Manually remove isolated plants.
Prevent seed set. Spray small infested areas with 10 g/ha Eclipse® plus 500mL/ha of Brodal® plus 1% spray oil in winter each year.
Most of the Brassicaceae weeds have dormant seeds that continue to germinate throughout the season and for several years. They often mature and set seed very quickly. Manual removal is effective but must be done at least every 8-10 weeks. Once pods are formed, seed will often mature even if the plant has been uprooted. Soil disturbance often leads to a flush of seedlings.
Many are somewhat unpalatable, so grazing only offers partial control. They often flourish in under-grazed, sunny areas.
In bushland situations, fairly selective control can be achieved with 100 mL spray oil plus 0.1 g Eclipse® or 0.5 g Logran® in 10 L water. 5 mL Brodal® is often added to this mix to provide residual control of seedlings. Spray the plants until just wet from the seedling stage up to pod formation.
Isolated plants should be removed manually and burnt if flowering or seeding and a 10 m buffer area sprayed with 10 mL Brodal® in 10 L water.
500 mL/ha of glyphosate(450g/L) can be used at flowering to reduce the seed set of most species on roadsides without causing significant damage to most native plants.
Wick application with 1 part glyphosate(450g/L) in 2 parts water or overall spraying with 100 mL glyphosate(450g/L) in 10 L water provides reasonable control of most Brassicaceae species though Wild Radish tends to regrow.

Herbicide resistance:

Biological Control:

Related plants:

There are none in the genus is WA
Flax-leaf Alyssum (Alyssum linifolium)
Wall Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)

Black Mustard (Brassica nigra)
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)
Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera)
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis)
Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala)
Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes)
Mediterranean Turnip (Brassica tournefortii)
Rape or Canola (Brassica napus var. napus)
Rapeseed (Brassica rapa var. sylvestris)
Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda)
Smooth Stemmed Turnip (Brassica barrelieri subsp. oxyrrhina was Brassica oxyrrhina)
Swede (Brassica napus var. napobrassica)
Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa)
Twiggy Turnip (Brassica fruticulosa)
Winter Rape (Brassica napus var. biennis)
Brassica elongata

Sea Rocket (Cakile maritima)
White Ball Mustard (Calepina irregularis)
Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)
Common Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta)
Wood Bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa) is not in WA.
Ward's Weed (Carrichtera annua)
Wall Rocket (Diplotaxis muralis)
Sand Rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Heliophila pusilla
Oval Purse (Hornungia procumbens was Hymenobolus procumbens)

Argentine Peppercress (Lepidium bonariense) is often found around granite rocks.
Common Peppercress (Lepidium africanum) is common in WA.
Field Cress (Lepidium campestre) has clasping stem leaves.
Garden Cress (Lepidium sativa)
Hoary Cress (Lepidium draba was Cardaria draba)
Lesser Swinecress (Lepidium didymum was Coronopus didymus)
Matted Peppercress (Lepidium pubescens)
Perennial Peppercress (Lepidium latifolium)
Virginian Peppercress (Lepidium virginicum)
(Lepidium oxytrichum)
(Lepidium perfoliatum)

Sweet Alyssum (Lobularia maritima)
Common Stock (Matthiola incana)
Night-scented Stock (Matthiola longipetala)
Muskweed (Myagrum perfoliatum) is not in WA.
Ball mustard (Neslia paniculata)

Cultivated Radish (Raphanus sativus).
Sea Radish (Raphanus maritimus).

Turnip Weed (Rapistrum rugosum)
Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum)
White Mustard (Sinapis alba) has white seed.
Charlock (Sinapis arvensis)

Sisymbrium altissimum is not in WA.
Smooth Mustard (Sisymbrium erysimoides)
London Rocket (Sisymbrium irio)
Hedge Mustard (Sisymbrium officinale)
Indian Hedge Mustard (Sisymbrium orientale)0
Sisymbrium runcinatum
African Turnip Weed (Sisymbrium thellungii) is not in WA.

Succowia balearica is in Kings Park in Perth.
.

Plants of similar appearance:

White Ball Mustard (Calepina irregularis) has a longer point on the tip of the fruit.

References:

Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia). P384, 387. Diagram of pod.

Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #877.1

Moerkerk, M.R. and Barnett, A.G. (1998). More Crop Weeds. R.G. and F.J. Richardson, Melbourne. P72. Diagrams. Photos.

Muenschner p 2526.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.