Evergreen shrubs, usually with opposite leaves that are at right angles to the pair below. It ahs red or pink to purplish "bottle brush" flowers.
Leaves:Usually opposite and each pair at right angles to the pair below.
Dotted with aromatic oil glands
Stipules - None or tiny.
Petiole - short.
Blade - Simple, dotted with oil glands, smooth edges, often leathery.
Bottle brush like. Dense head or short spike. Membranous bracts that usually fall off.
Flowers:Red or pink purple, stalkless,
Often with male flowers and bisexual flowers on the same plant.
Radially symmetrical. Floral tube is cup shaped.
Ovary - Inferior or almost so 3 celled with 1 ovule per cell. Ovule top is convex and hairy with a depression around the style
Style - Simple, terminal, thread like.
Stigma - Small, head like.
Sepals - Green and soft with papery edges. Connected to the floral tube. 5 free or united into a cap (operculum). Often hairy.
Petals - 4 or 5, free and overlapping
Stamens - 5 to many. Longer than the petals. Connected into 5 bundles opposite the petals.
Anthers - Erect, attached by the base. 2 celled. Cells divergent, broad, opening across the top in a semi circular slit.
Fruit:Dry, woody capsule. 3 valved. Seed released through slits at the top (midway between partitions) when ripe.
Roots:Taproot with many laterals.
Key Characters:Trees or shrubs
Leaves with aromatic oils.
Flowers actinomorphic (radially symmetrical)
Floral tube well developed.
5 Sepals connected to the floral tube.
5 Petals free or shortly joined, usually persistent.
Ovary inferior or half inferior.
1 ovule per cell.
More stamens than petals, joined into bundles opposite the petals.
Anthers erect and attached by the base. Opening at the top by transverse slits
Fruit dehiscent, 3 valved capsule
Adapted from B.L. Rye.
Will regrow from stump if damaged.
Flowering times:Seed Biology and Germination:
Regrows from stump.
Allelopathy:Population Dynamics and Dispersal:
Spread by seed.
Origin and History:Almost all species are native to WA.
Distribution:ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA. as ornamental plantings.
Ornamental, gums, shelter.
Not recorded as toxic.
Legislation:The Wildlife Conservation Act prohibits removal of native plants from the wild in their native range on government land.
Management and Control:Manual removal is usually effective.
Burning followed by bull dosing or chaining is usually the most cost effective for large stands.
Individual trees can be sawn off close to ground level and the stump painted immediately with Access. Basal bark spraying with Access® in diesel is effective. Saplings can be sprayed overall with Garlon, Grazon or glyphosate.
Herbicide resistance:None reported.
Biological Control:Unlikely because it is an Australian native species.
Related plants:Sand Bottlebrush (Beaufortia squarrosa)
Plants of similar appearance:References:
Auld, B.A. and Medd R.W. (1992). Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).
Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia).
Bodkin, F. (1986). Encyclopaedia Botanica. (Angus and Robertson, Australia).
Everist, S.L. (1974). Poisonous Plants of Australia. (Angus and Robertson, Sydney).
Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).
Marchant et al (1987). Flora of the Perth Region. (Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia). P384-385. Diagram.
Parsons, W.T. and Cuthbertson, E.G. (1992) Noxious weeds of Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).
Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.