Description:A bacterial disease that initially causes small water soaked spots on leaves and catkins. These enlarge to 2-3 mm wide, turn brown and become angular with time. Dark sunken spots may occur on the leaf veins, midribs and petioles. On young shoots, sunken black areas may develop. Catkin infection can interfere with pollen production and fruit set. Symptoms on nuts depend on the age of infection and include stained, shrivelled and rotten kernels, adherence of the husk to the nut, and premature falling of nuts.
Biology:Favoured by spring rains, frost and hail damage.
Life Cycle:Over winters in buds and twigs and is splashed onto new growth in spring.
Origin and History:Distribution:
Management and Control:Plant tolerant varieties.
Related and Similar Species:References: