Brussels Sprouts Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera DC.
Order - Capparales
Family - Brassicaceae
Brassica is the Latin name for cabbage.
A green vegetable.
Produces a basal rosette of leaves.
Blade - Blue green, hairless.
Stem leaves -
Up to 1000 mm tall.
Sepals - Erect to spreading.
Petals - Yellow, egg shaped.
Long cylindrical pod, up to 100 mm long, with convex valves with an obvious mid vein.
Globular, in a single row.
Biennial or perennial herb. Commercial crops are grown as an annual and mature in 2-4 months.
By seed or transplanting.
Flowers in spring.
Seed Biology and Germination:
Population Dynamics and Dispersal:
Spread mainly by intentional planting.
Origin and History:
ACT, NSW, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.
Best quality is when produce matures under cool conditions.
Sands to clay loams.
Prefer a pH of 6-7 but will still grow well on alkaline soils.
Cultivated vegetable crop.
Weed of disturbed areas.
Can cause bloat.
May produce "Kale anaemia" in ruminants.
Mature plants and regrowth are the most toxic.
Anaemia, loss of appetite, jaundice, weakness, reduced milk production, increased heart rate, diarrhoea and red urine.
Remove stock from infested area.
Management and Control:
Not usually required.
Most of the Brassicaceae weeds have dormant seeds that continue to germinate throughout the season and for several years. They often mature and set seed very quickly. Manual removal is effective but must be done at least every 8-10 weeks. Once pods are formed, seed will often mature even if the plant has been uprooted. Soil disturbance often leads to a flush of seedlings.
Many are somewhat unpalatable, so grazing only offers partial control. They often flourish in undergrazed, sunny areas.
In bushland situations, fairly selective control can be achieved with 100 mL spray oil plus 0.1 g Eclipse® or 0.5 g Logran® in 10 L water. 5 mL Brodal® is often added to this mix to provide residual control of seedlings. Spray the plants until just wet from the seedling stage up to pod formation.
Isolated plants should be removed manually and burnt if flowering or seeding and a 10 m buffer area sprayed with 10 mL Brodal® in 10 L water.
500 mL/ha of glyphosate(450g/L) can be used at flowering to reduce the seed set of most species on roadsides without causing significant damage to most native plants.
Wick application with 1 part glyphosate(450g/L) in 2 parts water or overall spraying with 100 mL glyphosate(450g/L) in 10 L water provides reasonable control of most species though Wild Radish tends to regrow.
Pests include Cabbage Aphid, Cabbage White Butterfly larvae and Cabbage Moth larvae.
Diseases include Black Rot, Black Leg, Ring Spot, Club Root, Cabbage Yellows and Leaf Spot.
Black Mustard (Brassica nigra)
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)
Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera)
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis)
Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala)
Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes)
Rape or Canola (Brassica napus var. napus)
Rapeseed (Brassica rapa var. sylvestris)
Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda)
Smooth Stemmed Turnip (Brassica oxyrrhina)
Swede (Brassica napus var. napobrassica)
Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa)
Twiggy Turnip (Brassica fruticulosa)
Winter Rape (Brassica napus var.biennis)
The native Brassicaceae species usually have short, broad and smooth pods.
Plants of similar appearance:
Everist, S.L. (1974). Poisonous Plants of Australia. (Angus and Robertson, Sydney). P212-213.
Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Cousens, R.D., Dodd, J. and Lloyd, S.G. (1997). Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. (Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia). P
Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #195.12.
Reid, R.L. (1990) The Manual of Australian Agriculture. (Butterworths, Sydney). P143-144.
Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.