Sheath - Rounded on the back and smooth. Often reddish towards the base. Tubular.
Erect. Loosely tufted or occasionally spreading. 1500 mm tall. Short whorled branches. Occasionally bent like a knee. Nodes occasionally hairy.
Loose and open panicle initially but becomes upright and compact with age and sometimes nodding. 120-300 mm long. Green or purplish when young.
Disarticulate above the glumes.
Spikelets - 7-11 mm long. On stalks that are usually shorter than the spikelet. Usually 2 flowered. Flattened.
Florets - 9 mm long. Lower one male. The upper bisexual.
Glumes - Broad, shiny, thin, translucent, pointed, rounded on back. Upper one has three nerves and is 8-11 mm long. Lower one has one nerve and is smaller at 5-7 mm long.
Palea - Narrower than lemma. 6-8 mm long. Hairy on keels.
Lemma - 8-11 mm. 5-9 nerved. Hairy near base, rough to touch above. Firm, translucent margins, rounded on back. Upper one awnless or is shortly awned near the top. Lower (male) one has a 18 mm, bent, twisted awn and arises from below the middle of the lemma.
Pale, 9 mm long by 2 mm wide with a bent awn that is about as long as the seed or 9 mm long.
1 to several basal internodes swollen into a corm or a chain of corms. Yellowish.
Perennial. Grows from seed and corm like swollen nodes at the base of the plant.
Corms are unpalatable to grazing animals but are often eaten by pigs.
By seed and corms.
Seed Biology and Germination:
Population Dynamics and Dispersal:
Origin and History:
Europe and western Asia.
Naturalised in most temperate areas.
ACT, NSW, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.
Occurs in the Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain and Warren regions in the high rainfall regions of WA.
Temperate areas, Mediterranean.
Prefers high rainfall areas.
Prefers summer moist soils and sands.
Ornamental. Fodder. Formerly used as a pasture grass
Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).
Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #129.1.
Marchant, N.G., Wheeler, J.R., Rye, B.L., Bennett, E.M., Lander, N.S. and Macfarlane, T.D. (1987). Flora of the Perth Region. (Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia). P940.
Moerkerk, M.R. and Barnett A.G. (1998) More Crop Weeds. (R.G and F.J. Richardson, Melbourne). P26. Photos. Diagrams.
Paterson, J.G. (1977). Grasses in South Western Australia. (Western Australian Department of Agriculture Bulletin 4007). P25. Diagrams.
Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.