Chlorsulfuron

1 Trade nameManufacturerForm
4FARMERS CHLORSULFURON 750 WDG WATER DISPERSIBLE GRANULES4 FARMERS PTY LTDWG
AC DODGE 750 HERBICIDEAXICHEM PTY LTDWG
AGCHLOR 750 WG HERBICIDEOSPRAY PTY LTDWG
AGROCHEM CHLORSULFURON 750 WETTABLE POWDER CEREAL HERBICIDEIMTRADE AUSTRALIA PTY LTDWP
APPARENT CHLORSULFURON 750WG HERBICIDEAPPARENT PTY. LTD.WG
ARM CHLORSULFURON HERBICIDEPROTERRA PTY LTDWP
AW CARVUP 750 WG HERBICIDEAGRI WEST PTY LIMITEDWG
CHEMAG CHLORSULFURON WG HERBICIDEIMTRADE AUSTRALIA PTY LTDWG
CHEMFORCE CHLORSULFURON 750WG HERBICIDECHEMFORCE 2010 PTY LTDWG
CHLORSUN 750 HERBICIDEGROW CHOICE PTY LIMITEDWG
CONQUEST CHLORSULFURON 750 WG HERBICIDECONQUEST CROP PROTECTION PTY LTDWG
DUPONT GLEAN CEREAL HERBICIDEDU PONT (AUSTRALIA) LTDDF
ECHEM CHLORSULFURON 750WG HERBICIDEECHEM (AUST) PTY LIMITEDWG
FARMALINX TUFMAN HERBICIDEFARMALINX PTY LTDWG
FARMOZ TACKLE 750 WP SELECTIVE HERBICIDEFARMOZ PTY LIMITEDWP
FARMOZ TACKLE WG HERBICIDEFARMOZ PTY LIMITEDWG
GENEREX CHLORSULFURONMACSPRED PTY. LTD.DF
GENFARM CHLORSULFURON 750 WDG HERBICIDELANDMARK OPERATIONS LIMITEDWG
KENSO AGCARE KEN-CHLOR 750 WATER DISPERSIBLE GRANULE HERBICIDEKENSO CORPORATION (M) SDN. BHD.WG
LASHER CEREAL HERBICIDESANONDA (AUSTRALIA) PTY LTDWG
NUFARM LUSTA HERBICIDENUFARM AUSTRALIA LIMITEDDF
OSPRAY CHLORSULFURON 750WG HERBICIDEOSPRAY PTY LTDWG
PACIFIC CHLORSULFURON 750 WG HERBICIDEPACIFIC AGRISCIENCE PTY LTDWG
PLATOON WDG SELECTIVE HERBICIDENUFARM AUSTRALIA LIMITEDWG
RAINBOW CHLORSULFURON 750 WG HERBICIDESHANDONG RAINBOW INTERNATIONAL CO., LTD.WG
RYGEL CHLORSULFURON 750 WG HERBICIDERYGEL AUSTRALIA PTY. LTD.WG
TITAN CHLORSULFURON 750 WG HERBICIDETITAN AG PTY LTDWG
UNITED FARMERS CHLORSULFURON 750 CEREAL HERBICIDERAVENSDOWN FERTILISER CO-OPERATIVE LIMITEDWP
UNITED FARMERS CHLORSULFURON WG HERBICIDERAVENSDOWN FERTILISER CO-OPERATIVE LIMITEDWG
WHITESTAR CHLORSULFURON WG HERBICIDEAGRICULTURAL PRODUCT SERVICES PTY LTDWG
WSD CHLORSULFURON HERBICIDEREBOP HOLDINGS PTY LTD T/A WESTERN STOCK DISTRIBUTORSWP

Previously sold as Glean Toss-N-Go

2 PRICE:

$53.9/kg
$53.9/L

3 ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: Chlorsulfuron 750g/kg

4 CHEMICAL GROUP: B

5 RELATED HERBICIDES:

BroadstrikeFlumetsulam 800g/kg
ChlorsulfuronChlorsulfuron 750g/kg
CrusaderPyroxulam 30g/L
EclipseMetosulam 100g/L
EclipseMetosulam 714g/kg
EthoxysulfuronEthoxysulfuron 600g/kg
ExpressTribenuron methyl 750g/kg
FlameImazapic 240g/L
Harmony MMetsulfuron 68g/kg + thifensulfuron 682g/kg
ImazapyrImazapyr 250g/L or 750g/kg
IntervixImazamox 33g/L + imazapyr 15g/L
Iodosulfuron 100Iodosulfuron 100g/kg
Iodosulfuron 50Iodosulfuron 50g/kg + mefenpyr
LightningImazapyr 175g/L + imazethapyr 525g/L
Logran 750Triasulfuron 750g/kg
LondaxBensulfuron 600g/kg
Mesosulfuron 30Mesosulfuron 30g/L
Metsulfuron-methylMetsulfuron 600g/kg
MonzaSulfosulfuron 750g/kg
MusterEthametsulfuron methyl 750g/kg
OnDutyImazapic 525 + Imazapyr 175g/L
Raptor WG 700Imazamox 700 g/kg
SempraHalosulfuron 750g/kg
SpinnakerImazethapyr 700g/kg or 240g/L
SulfometuronSulfometuron 750g/kg
TitusRimsulfuron 250g/kg
TrifloxysulfuronTrifloxysulfuron 750g/kg

6 GENERAL DESCRIPTION:

Chlorsulfuron was the first commercial herbicide from the sulfonylurea group. It is 100 times more active than traditional herbicides so very low rates are used in the field.
It is a selective and translocated herbicide that is absorbed through the leaves and roots. Its main uses are for the control of a large variety of grass and broad-leaved weeds as pre-emergence application on wheat or as a post-emergence application on wheat, barley and oat crops. It is of low toxicity to mammals, birds and fish. Chlorsulfuron acts on the ALS enzyme in plants which is not present in animals and this is the main reason for its low toxicity. Chlorsulfuron presents little hazard to the environment because it is used at low rates and degrades relatively quickly in most field situations. Plants resistant to chlorsulfuron have developed and are expected after repeated use.

7 APPLICATION METHODS AND TIPS:

Chlorsulfuron is usually mixed with 30-100 l water per hectare and broadcast through hydraulic nozzles. It can be applied in ultra low volumes of carrier.
In post emergence applications, surfactants usually increase weed control especially on grasses. Spraying oils also increase weed control but may cause crop damage. They are not generally recommended for post-emergence applications on crops.
Acidifiers may increase chlorsulfuron absorption, especially on waxy plants.
Weeds are most sensitive and crops most tolerant of chlorsulfuron when they are young and actively growing. Under cold, wet or stressful conditions the weeds become more tolerant and the crop less tolerant of the herbicide. For each 10 degree drop in temperature the crops ability to break down chlorsulfuron drops by a factor of 2 to 5, thus under cold conditions crop damage is more likely.
Rain within a few hours of application may reduce the effectiveness of post-emergence applications. Most of the herbicide is washed off leaves by the first 4 mm of rain. Leaching rains reduce the effectiveness of pre-emergence applications.
Temperature and relative humidity have little effect on the effectiveness of chlorsulfuron apart from their indirect effect on plant growth rates.

8 WEATHER:

Rainfast in 4 hours for post emergence applications and zero for pre emergence applications.
Frost effects: No effect on pre emergence applications. Reduced weed kill for post emergence applications.
Wind: 1-25 kph.
Inversions: Avoid spraying during inversions.
Temperature:
Delta T and relative humidity: Avoid application when Delta T is greater than
Soil moisture at application:

9 ADJUVANTS:

Wetting agents: Not required for pre emergence applications. Wetting agents increase the weed kill on hard to wet weeds and only occasionally reduce the crop tolerance.
Spray oils: Not required for pre emergence applications. Spray oils increase the weed kill but may reduce the crop tolerance.

10 WATER QUALITY:

Hard or salty water may reduce its effectiveness.
Up to 10% of the chlorsulfuron activity could be lost each day it is kept in the spray tank during warm weather if the water is acidic.
Soil colloids have little effect.

11 COMPATIBILITY:

Non ionic surfactants and spraying oils increase the absorption. For spraying oils this may lead to crop damage and so they are not usually recommended.
Chlorsulfuron is antagonistic with diclofop and other grass herbicides. The antagonism is variable and appears to depend on the ratio of the herbicides.
Chlorsulfuron may be synergistic with hormone herbicides and metsulfuron. This may cause crop damage if rates are not adjusted.
Chlorsulfuron forms stable metal and ammonium salts so it is incompatible with most trace elements and ammonium sulphate.

12 EQUIPMENT:

Boom sprays:

Carrier volume: 30-200 L/ha
Nozzles: Flat fan.
Pressure: 150-400 kPa.

13 SPRAYER DECONTAMINATION:

Clean up:
Remove nozzles and filters and clean separately. Triple rinse with soapy water (eg 500 mL or g of Drive, Dynamo, Omo or Surf per 100 L water) or water plus 0.25% wetting agent and run through boom. This procedure is sufficient for spraying in other cereals or non selective applications.
Decontamination:
Remove the nozzles and screens and clean separately and allow to soak in a mixture of 500 mL chlorine bleach per 10 L water for at least 30 minutes.
Rinse sprayer with soapy water (eg 500 mL or g of Drive, Dynamo, Omo or Surf per 100 L water) or water plus 0.25% wetting agent and run through boom. Drain tank and flush with clean water for a minimum of 10 minutes to remove all traces of liquid fertilisers or adjuvants containing ammonia, such as ammonium sulphate or ammonium nitrate, before adding chlorine bleach, because bleach and ammonia will react to release a toxic gas.
Fill tank with clean water and add 300 mL household chlorine (4%) bleach per 100 L water, flush through hoses and boom then stand for 15 minutes with agitation engaged, repeat. Rinse tank, hoses and boom thoroughly with clean water to remove traces of bleach.
Rinse screens and nozzles and replace.

14 HERBICIDE RESISTANCE:

Plant populations tolerant to chlorsulfuron are expected to occur naturally after repeated use.
Tolerant crops can be developed.
Herbicide resistance appears to be due to plants with a less sensitive ALS enzyme.

15 REPLANTING INTERVALS:

CropTime
See label 

16 WITHHOLDING PERIODS:

CropTypeTime
AllGrazingNot required
AllHarvestNot required

17 RE-ENTRY PERIOD:

Wear protective clothing if in contact with the crop before the spray has dried.

18 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:

Overalls.

19 SOIL:

Soil texture:
Soil pH:
Soil organic matter:

20 MODE OF ACTION:

Uptake and translocation:

Most of the chlorsulfuron applied to leaves is absorbed. Small amounts move out of the leaf to other shoots and even less to the roots. Most is translocated in the phloem. Absorption by roots from the soil solution is not as efficient but this is compensated for by better movement up to the leaves.

Physiological effects:

Within the plant, chlorsulfuron stops cell division very quickly by its action on the ALS enzyme. Secondary effects on photosynthesis, respiration and ethylene production produce the symptoms of yellowing and reddening of grasses and leaf drop in broad-leaved weeds.
The growth of seedlings may be stimulated at low dose rates.
It does not normally affect seed germination.

Residual Life and Breakdown:

21 SELECTIVITY:

Species tolerant to chlorsulfuron such as the cereals degrade it more quickly than do sensitive plants. Differences in tolerance to post emergence applications to wheat varieties was also due to differing rates of breakdown. Sensitive varieties produced less spikelets/ear (Dastgheig et al, 1993). Degradation products are non toxic and herbicidally inactive.

Crop tolerance:

The tolerance of crops to chlorsulfuron is reduced in soils with high pH, sandy soils, soils with marginal zinc, manganese or copper levels, if leaching rains occur soon after spraying or if crops are waterlogged before or after spraying.
On areas where chlorsulfuron has induced trace element deficiencies the following may reduce losses;
1 kg zinc sulphate plus
1 kg copper sulphate (or 0.5 kg copper oxychloride) plus
4 kg manganese sulphate (or 6 L Mangasol) plus
250 mL wetting agent in 100 L/ha of water applied in the cool of the day or at night.
5-7 days later spray a mix of 30 kg Urea in 100 L/ha water in the cool of the day. Pre mix urea in water to prevent freezing in the spray tank.

Varietal sensitivities:

Wheat - Amery, Brookton, Calingiri and Kulin are sensitive to pre em applications and post em applications up to the 2 tiller stage. Increased stem breakage may occur in Kulin. Arrino is sensitive to pre em applications.

Effect on Clover Species:

Effect on Medic Species:

Effect on Lucerne:

Effect on Native Plants:

22 DISEASE AND INSECT EFFECTS:

23 PLANT SYMPTOMS:

Growth stops soon after application. About a week later plants will start to yellow or redden. In broad-leaved weeds there may be an inter venal yellowing. Annual weeds are usually dead within 4 weeks of spraying. Under cold and wet conditions they may remain alive as severely stunted plants with few roots and die from water stress in spring. Chlorsulfuron has little effect on germination and weeds may emerge and grow for a week or two before dying.

SECONDARY EFFECTS:

Chlorsulfuron does not affect the microbes associated with N fixation in legumes.
Chlorsulfuron and residues in the soil from previous applications may make the crop more susceptible to Take-All, CCN, Rhizoctonia and zinc, copper and manganese deficiency (Hollaway 1997).
It has no impact on N or P nutrition of cereals (Wilhelm et al, 1995).

24 TOXICITY:

Summary:

Oral Toxicity (ingestion by mouth) - Low.

Dermal Toxicity (absorption by skin) - Low.

Toxicity to Other Species - Low.

Details:

Poison Schedule - 5
Mammalian toxicity - low.
Acute oral LD50 - 5500 mg/kg (male rats), 6300 mg/kg(female rats). [For comparison table salt is 3000 mg/kg]
Acute dermal LD50 - > 3400 mg/kg (rabbit).
Skin - not irritating.
Eye - mildly irritating.
Vapour inhalation - LC50 - > 5.9 mg/L air (rat).
Chronic oral toxicity NOEL - 100 ppm for two years.
Not mutagenic or teratogenic (i.e. does not cause cancer or reproductive problems).
Birds - low toxicity.
Fish - low toxicity LC50 > 250 ppm.
Invertebrates - low toxicity.
Bees - low toxicity.

25 TOXICITY SYMPTOMS:

Chlorsulfuron does not usually evoke any symptoms in animals.
The main enzyme (ALS) that is attacked in plants does not occur in animals.

26 FIRST AID: for Oral Intake:

Induce vomiting preferably with Ipecac syrup.

27 ENVIRONMENTAL FATE:

Chlorsulfuron has a half life in soil of about 2 weeks -2 months. Its half life is much longer in soils with high pH (up to 9 months). At a soil pH of less than 7 it is broken down by hydrolysis and microbial degradation. At a pH of more than 8 there is little hydrolysis and only microbial breakdown. Breakdown is most rapid in warm, moist, acid and light textured soils with high organic matter. Little is naturally degraded due to exposure to sunlight and volatilisation. Chlorsulfuron has an EPA classification for soil mobility that ranges from intermediate mobility to very mobile depending on the soil type. Mobility usually increases with increasing soil pH and decreasing organic matter. It will move up, down and sideways in the soil profile depending on the water flow. However, it is not expected to cause ground water contamination problems due to its relatively rapid degradation in plants and soils, low use rates and low toxicity.

Replanting Intervals:

Some crops should not be planted for many months after chlorsulfuron application. This is because they are sensitive to extremely low levels of chlorsulfuron and not because of high levels of persistence of the herbicide in the soil. Lentils, Medic, sugar beet and onions are very sensitive to Chlorsulfuron. Canola, Setaria Millet, Lucerne, sunflower, potatoes, mustard corn and flax are sensitive. Peas, Beans, Mung Beans, Pearl Millet, Ryegrass, Sorghum, Cotton, Soybeans, Safflower, Bluegrass and Guar are moderately sensitive and Wheat, Triticale, Rye, Barley, Oats and Black Nightshade are tolerant.
On Wimmera grey clays chlorsulfuron at 20 g/ha reduced the growth of lentils and medic 2 years after application (Hollaway, 1997).

Bio Accumulation:

Chlorsulfuron does not accumulate in the milk or tissues of animals. Most is excreted intact in the urine of mono gastric animals or as a conjugate in ruminants.

28 REGISTERED CROPS:

See HerbiGuide Species Solution tab.

29 REGISTERED WEEDS:

See HerbiGuide Species Solution tab.

30 REGULATION AND LEGAL:

UN number:
CAS numbers:
Hazchem code:
NOHSC classification:
Land transport:
Dangerous goods class (ADG):
Sea transport:
Proper shipping name:
International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG):
Class:
Packaging group:
EPG:
Risk phrases:

31 PROPERTIES:

Water solubility at 25 C. - 60 ppm at pH 5; 7000 ppm at pH 7 and quoted up to 27,900 ppm under some conditions.
Octanol:Water ratio at 25 C. - 5.5 at pH 5; 0.046 at pH 7
Vapour Pressure at 25 C. - Very low. 2.3 x 10-11
Dissociation constant - 3.6 pKa
Melting point - 174-178 C.
Molecular weight - 357.78
Half life in water - 6 days at pH5 and 35 C. 208 days at pH8 and 35 C.
It has a leaching index of 25-30. (for comparison, trifluralin is 0-1 and chlorsulfuron is 25-30).
It has a half life 30 days at 20 degrees and 50% WHC in Mohlin soil.

32 SPILLS:

Sweep up granules and dispose in a chemical disposal pit.

33 FIRE:

Extinguish with water spray, foam, carbon dioxide or dry agent.
Toxic fumes may be released in fire. Wear breathing apparatus or avoid smoke.

34 COMMENTS:

35 REFERENCES:

Ashton, F.M. and Crafts, A.S. (1981) Mode of Action of Herbicides. (Wiley-Interscience publication).

Kearney, P.C. and Kaufman, D.D. (1976). Herbicides. Chemistry, degradation and mode of action. Vol 1 & 2.

Field Crop Herbicide Information (A.J. Chambers):

CHLORSULFURON
2. Concentration of Active Constituent : 750g/kg
Trade Name : Glean Du Pont; Siege Nufarm
3. Formulation : Dry flowable
4. Poison Schedule : 5
6. Product colour : Cream/brown granules
7. Product Flammability : Non flammable.
8. Dangerous Goods Class :
9. Shelf Life : Unlimited.
(When stored under ideal conditions)
10. Mixtures Compatibility :
2,4-D amine Spray.Seed (paraquat + diquat)
2,4-D ester trifluralin
Avadex BW (tri-allate) INSECTICIDES
Brominil (bromoxynil) Decis
Brominil M (bromoxynil + MCPA) Le Mat (omethoate)
Mataven (flamprop-methyl) Lorsban (chlorpyrifos)
MCPA Rogor (dimethoate)
Roundup (glyphosate) Sumicidin (fenvalerate)
Do NOT mix with :- Fusilade (fluazifop-P)
Organophosphates
Substituted urea herbicides
Hoegrass/Nugrass (diclofop-methyl)
11. Registered Crop(s) : Pre-sowing: Wheat, Triticale Post-sowing: Wheat, Barley, Oats, Triticale, Cereal Rye.
12. Effect of Soil Texture on Herbicide : Residual weed control may be reduced on light soils under heavy rainfall.
13. Effect of Soil pH on Herbicide : Determines cropping interval, rate of use for ryegrass, and length of in-crop weed control. Most rapid breakdown occurs in warm, moist acid soils. At pH 4.5 and temperature 20oC the half life of Glean is 15 to 30 days.
14. Effect of Soil Organic Matter on Herbicide : Do not apply to soils low in organic matter as crop injury may occur. Residual weed control may be reduced on high organic matter soils.
15. Mode of Action : Selectivity due to detoxification in resistant species; action is by inhibition of cell division in the growing tips of roots and shoots in susceptible species. Both tolerant and susceptible species absorb chlorsulfuron. Pre-emergent:- root absorbed. Post-emergent:-foliar translocated followed often by root absorption after rainfall.
16. Application Timing : Pre-sowing to wheat and triticale ONLY. Optimum control is achieved when applied prior to sowing. Early post-em. - 2 leaf stage of the crop, weeds should be no more than 5cm in height or diameter.
17. Rate Variations : 15 - 25 g/ha.
18. Rates Selection : Where alternative rates are recommended for specific weeds, select the higher rate for situations with high weed pressure and/or environmental conditions not conducive to good weed control.
19. Weeds Controlled : Annual (Wimmera) ryegrass, ball mustard, black bindweed, capeweed, charlock, common Iceplant, corn gromwell/sheepweed/white ironweed, deadnettle, docks, Fat Hen, fumitory, hoary cress, Indian hedge mustard, King Island melilot, Lincoln weed, loosestrife, mouse-ear chickweed, mustards, paradoxa grass, Paterson's curse, pimpernel, prickly lettuce/whip thistle, rough poppy, shepherd's purse, soursob, stemless thistle, Storksbill/wild geranium, suppression of brome grass and saffron thistle, three cornered jack/Doublegee/spiny Emex, tree hogweed, turnip weed, wild radish, wild turnip, wireweed/hogweed, yellow Burrweed/Amsinckia,
20. Effect on Crop : Temporary yellowing and stunting.
21. Effect on Legume Species : Knockdown and residual control of clovers will be seen. DO NOT use in crops undersown with legume pasture species, eg medics, clovers.
22. Soil Moisture at Application :
DRY - Root uptake reduced thus efficacy reduced. Post-emergent while foliar uptake occurs overall effectiveness maybe reduced due to lack of rainfall incorporation.
MOIST - Ideal.
WATERLOGGED - Poor control as plants under stress. May damage crop.
23. Frost Effects : Immediately prior to, during and after application possible decrease in efficacy as weeds are stressed. Immediately prior to and during application risk of temporary herbicide damage to crop. After application the greater the number of consecutive days of frost the greater the risk.
24. Frost Free Days Required After Application : Not just a function of frost - will depend on daily temperatures which will influence the rate of growth.
25. Effect of Application Water Quality on Herbicide :
Saline Water - Little effect.
Soil Colloids - Little effect.
A combination of acid water and warm weather could cause the breakdown of Glean in the spray tank of up to 10 % per day.
26. Recommended Water Volume : 30 L/ha boom, 20 L/ha minimum aircraft.
27. Nozzle Type : Flat fan.
28. Recommended Nozzle Pressure : None recommended.
29. Recommended Filter Size : Mesh size as suitable for nozzle being used.
30. Recommended Wetter : Du Pont Surfactant or other non-ionic surfactant.
For post-emergent application always add surfactant/wetting agent. Eg DuPont Surfactant at 100ml/100L.
31. Other Additives : None recommended.
32. Rain Fastness : 4 hours.
33. Time Interval Before Effect is Noticed : 10 - 20 days, time taken is environmentally dependant. Under hot, warm, moist conditions the plants die faster. In cool, dry conditions weed kill will be slower.
34. Weed Symptoms : Typical symptoms of chlorsulfuron activity are yellowing or reddening of the weed leaves.
35. Effect of Herbicide/Disease Interaction on Crop : CCN and Rhizoctonia: crop damage may occur. Generally the disease puts the crop under stress and therefore may cause crop injury. The effects of CCN and Rhizoctonia can be accentuated after application of Glean. Interaction between Glean and Rhizoctonia has caused yield reductions of 0.7 to 1.5 t/ha in barley crops sown 12 months after Glean application.
36. Withholding Period : 0 days. If the crop is to be grazed, suggest 1 - 2 days to allow translocation of product throughout target plant.
37. Plant-Back Period : Refer Label.
39. Other Comments : Do NOT apply pre-sowing incorporated by sowing to wheat varieties Avocet and Durati. Do NOT apply pre-sowing incorporated by sowing to variety Banks on soils of pH 5.5 or less. NOT recommended with Vulcan or Rosella on acid soils.
Do NOT apply to Stirling barley.
In soils where there are marginal levels of zinc and copper, the use of Glean on wheat may induce a deficiency in these trace elements causing a subsequent yield loss. *Do NOT empty tank washings near trees as they may be killed.
Dry conditions will favour high carry-over of Glean to following year and residual damage may occur to susceptible crops.
Glean is prone to leaching and if opening rains are heavy, much of the chemical could be lost to the subsoil.
Continuous agitation is required to maintain a suspension.
Broadleaf plants are more susceptible than grasses. Shallow incorporation may improve grass control but decrease broadleaf control.
Numbered data based on Field Crop Herbicides by A.J. Chambers.

33 REFERENCES:

Hollaway, K. (1997). Australian Grain. April-May 1997, 11-14.

Wilhelm, N., Ramsey, W and Neate, S. (1995) Australian Grain. Western Focus. October-November vii.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. For more information see www.herbiguide.com.au or phone 08 98444064.