The mature plant has a distinctive sticky feeling and rings of 6-8 leaves on the prostrate or scrambling and climbing, square stems with curves spines on the angles. The leaves have backward directed tiny spines on the edges and midrib on the underside and curved spines on the upper surface. The fruit is a pair of globular fruitlets covered with hooked spines on a straight stalk and is produced from small, white 4 petalled flowers in spring.
Two. Oval to egg shaped. Blade 7 to 15 mm long. Tip indented with a distinctive apical notch. Edges smooth. Base tapered to squarish. Surface hairless. Petiole shorter than blade an 4-5 mm long. The seedling has a long hypocotyl and a long epicotyl.
Develop in a ring around the stem (whorl) with initially 4 then 5-6 leaves to a whorl. Leaves club shaped. Tip pointed. Edges smooth and bristly. Base tapered. Surface somewhat warty. [Some authors suggest 5-6 leaves for the first whorl of Cleavers (Galium aparine) and 4-5 leaves for the first whorl of Three-horned Bedstraw (Galium tricornutum)].
Later whorls have 6 to 8 leaves.
Stipules - Whorled.
Petiole - Absent.
Blade - Lance to club shaped, 10-60 mm long with a fine point, 1.5 mm long, formed by the midrib extending beyond the tip. On the upper surface they carry stout hooked hairs. The edges are often rolled backwards. The edges and midrib on the underside have backwardly directed spines similar to those on the stem. Mid stem leaves are the longest, lower leaves are very narrow.
The whole plant has a distinctive sticky feeling.
In the early stages stems are semi-erect and become straggling, weak, twining and prostrate, much branched especially from the base, up to 1500 mm or more, square in cross section with ridges on the corners, hollow and stout. They carry stout downward directed curved spines on the corners of the stem.
Axillary or terminal cyme. Stalk (peduncle) is longer than the leaves and carries 1-5 flowers on short, 2-4 mm long, straight stalks (pedicels) that are almost at right angles to each other.
Small and white 4 petalled flowers.
Bracts - At the base of the peduncle.
Petals - 4, white, 1 mm long with pointed tips.
2 globular to kidney shaped fruitlets, 3-4 mm long on a straight stalk that is longer than the fruit. They are covered in spiny, hooked hairs that are thickened towards the base and have a sticky feeling. They adhere readily to clothing or animals.
Up to 1000 brown to grey seeds which are round, 1-3 mm in diameter and with the surface covered with hooks are produced on each plant 290. Tip rounded. Surface covered in short hooked spines. Base indented
Whorls of 6-8 leaves, Stout stems. Fruit kidney shaped and bristly with hooked hairs.
Annual. Germination occurs mainly in Autumn.
Seeds need vernalisation. The moisture regime and amount of light were unimportant for the timing of flowering. Nutrition had some influence on the timing of flowering, but day length and maximum temperature were the most important factors in this respect. A formula developed from the product of day length and the effective max. temp. (0C above the base temp. of 5.30C) enabled relevant developmental rates of arable field populations of Galium aparine to be predicted over a broad range of environmental conditions. The flowering date in the field could be correctly predicted for cohorts of plants emerging at different dates at 2 sites 291.
The cuticle has an amorphous wax which makes penetration by most herbicides more difficult 292.
Spring in western NSW.
Spring in WA.
Seed Biology and Germination:
Ensiling or passage through the intestinal tract does not affect germination of seeds 290.
Freshly harvested seeds are in a state of primary dormancy; They then enter a period of secondary dormancy that diminishes in spring. The seeds were able to germinate at 20øC in light and to a lesser extent in the dark. Alternating between 10 and 20ø did not seem to promote germination 293.
Herbicide applications later than normal but before peak flowering were most effective at reducing seed production 294.
295 has some data on seed dormancy.
Seed bank is probably exhausted in 3-4 years in UK 296.
Seed can not be effectively removed from rape with screens or a trieur 297.
Seed has a high annual rate of decrease (about 80% per year) and for which seedling emergence represented an av. of 15% of the annual seed bank 298.
Seeds died after 2-4 weeks in cattle manure 299.
Has an extended germination period 300.
Seed extracts inhibited the germination and growth of Digitaria sanguinalis and Medicago sativa seedlings but it did not inhibit Trifolium repens. The extracts also inhibited germination of G. aparine itself.
Lettuce placed together with G. aparine seed had inhibited germination and growth 301.
Population Dynamics and Dispersal:
Densities of 100/m2 reduced rape yield by 65% and increase lodging to 35% in Poland 302.
More competitive under hi N conditions in spring wheat 303.
More competitive than sterile brome and less competitive than field poppy 303.
Main competitive effect is to reduce 1000-grain wt in wheat 304.
Had no effect on 1000-seed wt in Russia 305.
5 times more competitive than wild oats. For Galium aparine the economic threshold was as low as 2 plants/m2, Avena sterilis 7 and 12/m2, Lolium multiflorum 25 - 35/m2, Bromus sterilis 40/m2, Vicia sativa 5 -10/m2 under high N conditions in winter wheat in Italy 306. Not competitive under low N conditions in winter wheat in Italy 306 or the UK 307;308 or Germany 309 especially if no water stress 310. Yield decline due to one G. aparine plant/m2 was 0.24% in winter barley and 0.14% in winter wheat in Russia 305.Minimum threshold level for cleavers was 0.2 plants/m2 in rape in Germany 311. Control resulted in 12-14% increases in 1000 grain wt and up to 25 dt/ha grain yield in winter wheat in Germany 312. No crop yield advantage from removal of G. aparine prior to GS 32 in winter wheat in UK. Damage thresholds for G. aparine and V. arvensis were 80 plants/m2 in wheat in the USSR 313.With a full nutrient supply, cleavers were more competitive than wheat 314. A decision model supporting weed control in cereals based on economic thresholds including cleavers is available for Germany 315. 0.1-0.5 plants/m2 threshold for winter cereals in Germany 316. 38-fold av. increase in winter wheat over a 2-year period in Italy 317. Control of >2 weeds/m2 gave higher yields in winter wheat in Germany 309. 1 plant/m2 reduced yields on loess soils by 0.020 and 0.011% in spring barley in Germany 318. G. aparine competition reduced the number of ears and the number and wt of grain/ear and the 1000-grain weight in wheat in Poland 319. Wheat at high plant density suppressed late-germinating G. aparine in Germany 320. Losses varied from 0.7 to 2.9% per plant/m2 in wheat in the UK 321. 96-100 plants/m2 decreased yields of rape from 2.6 to 0.9 t/ha in Poland 322. More competitive than chickweed and mayweed in winter oilseed rape in Britain 323.
Increased with tillage in Canadian crop rotations 324. More common under minimum tillage than ploughing in UK 325. G. aparine densities built up most rapidly with no-tillage, followed by shallow tine cultivation, and least rapidly with ploughing. ioxynil + bromoxynil + mecoprop in Jan, followed by fluroxypyr in April reduced seed banks by 60%/yr. A population model for G. aparine showed that almost complete control (97-99%) would be needed to prevent populations from increasing 326. Germination and establishment could be markedly reduced by cultivation between 1 h after sunset and midnight in Germany 327. Population increased 5 times more rapidly with shallow cultivation systems than with ploughing. 7.8, 9.3 and 0.4% produced plants after shallow tine cultivation, no tillage and ploughing, respectively 328.
More weed seed was produced under Hi N conditions in winter wheat and less seed produced at higher wheat densities 329. Increased N fertilisation promoted Galium aparine 330. 0.4-9.9 plants/m2 reduced yields of winter oilseed rape by 5% in UK 331. Threshold levels for the weed in rape and winter wheat were approx. 0 and 0.1 cleavers plants/m2 respectively in Germany 332. Wild oats (A. fatua) were more competitive than cleavers in wheat in the UK 333. Galium aparine in gaps of a winter wheat crop produced up to three times more DM compared to gap-free conditions 334. Cleavers outgrew the crop on plots receiving high N 335.
Abundance increased after fire in Utah USA 336.
Mean rate of migration in forest was >2m/yr which was one of the highest rates in North America 337.
Shade tolerant species 338.
Requires 325-340 degree days to get to 2 leaf stage 339.
Low-red:far-red light ratio under the plant cover prevented germination 340.
Increases after annual chemical treatment stops in a Bavarian study 341.
Harvesters tended to spread seed from clumps of the weed over a wide area 332.
Population modelling to describe G. aparine populations, the parameters required and their predictive value 342.
Weed species with a high population growth rate, infestation was determined mainly by seed production, plant survival and rate of emergence. For those with a low growth rate, seed survival in soil was critical 343.
Cleavers increased in a winter Wheat/Bean rotation in Germany 344.
The root system of cleavers was shallower than wheat but was often of greater total length 314.
Galium aparine were the main weeds in the inorganic crops; these weeds were only present at very low levels in some of the organic fields in the UK 345.
46.6% of the seed was shed onto the soil surface while 42.0% appeared with the harvested seed in wheat and rape in Germany 332.
Origin and History:
ACT, NSW, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.
Cleavers are found in most parts of Tasmania.
Introduced to WA in 1996 as a contaminant of Canola from New Zealand and now under an eradication program.
Occurs equally over podsolic, brown, rendzina and chernozem soil types in Poland 346. Grows better on heavier soil types 347.
Third most important weed of wheat in Hungary 348;348.
4th most common weed in winter wheat and barley fields in the UK 349.
It is used in traditional medicine in China 350, Australia 351, India 352, and Portugal for its diuretic and spasmolytic properties 353.
It is predominantly a weed of waste land and gardens, but occurs occasionally in crops. In Europe it is a major weed of crops and it is capable of being strongly competitive. its climbing habit allows it to overwhelm crops and cause lodging, while the mature stems impede harvesting.
Rarely eaten by stock because the four sharp toothed edges on the stems injure the mouth.
Weed of dry land crops associated with Vicia sativa and Avena fatua in China 354.
Weed of cereals in Denmark 355, dry-land cereals in Spain 339, flax in Romania 356, forage mallow 357, peppermint in Montana 358, strawberries in Ireland 359, sugar beet in Poland 360, wheat in Poland 361 and China 362, white clover 357, root crops in Poland 363
Weed in Pakistan 364
Common weed of clover (Trifolium spp.), winter wheat, spring barley, potatoes, winter wheat and oats in Czechoslovakia
Common garden weed in the UK 366.
Host for Mycocentrosporaacerina, a disease of carrots in Norway 367.
Small pieces of cleavers stems and leaves impaired the efficiency of the straw walkers and sieves 332.
Carries a Powdery mildew 368.
Contaminates grain and impedes harvest of cereals 369.
Addition of up to 3% G. aparine seeds to diets did not affect duck performance, whereas 0.3% supplement of weed seeds negatively affected growth and health condition of broiler chickens 370.
Contaminated feed reduced growth in cockerels 371.
Obstruction of gizzard occurs in fowls through selective picking up of seed from contaminated grain 372.
0.68% cleavers in chicken feed caused 0.42% deaths and 10.06% showing symptoms of poisoning. Treat with Biolent Forte at 1 mL per bird. Post-mortem examination showed that the seeds had caused gastric obstruction and intestinal atony 373.
Both plant and seed contain saponins, hesperidin, quinolinic acid, glucosides and coumarin 290.
Mixed feed with 0.75% Catchweed, resulted in high mortality of chickens 5 days old. In the gizzard of week-old chickens there were up to 29 Catchweed seeds, and in 2 week-old chickens there were up to 72 Catchweed seeds 290.
Turkey chicks were not affected by 3% in feed 374.
Noxious weed of WA.
Management and Control:
2,4-D + dicamba provided 50% control in winter wheat in the Ukraine 375.
Tolerates 2,4-D and MCPA 376.
Builds up where 2,4-D is used in china 377.
Controlled with the aclonifen, flurochloridone + alachlor, and terbutryn + terbuthylazine treatments in potatoes in Cyprus 378.
Amidosulfuron gave excellent control in post emergence winter cereals in Poland 379.
Eagle, (amidosulfuron), which is less temperature dependent than Starane 2, was a useful alternative when applied to small cleavers early in the season under cool conditions 380.
Sencor with amidosulfuron used in winter cereals in Europe 52.
Amidosulfuron (Hoe 75032) at 30 g/ha provided good control and was well tolerated by winter and spring barley, winter wheat, winter rye and oats from the beginning of tillering up to the onset of shooting in Germany 381.
15 g/ha of amidosulfuron in winter wheat at tillering gave 95% control, while later treatment when the weed was 25-40 cm high resulted in 80-85% control in France. It was more consistent than Fluroxypyr 382.
Amidosulfuron 30g/ha applied between the seedling stage in Feb. and the visible flower bud stage in May or early June in the UK resulted in excellent control of G. aparine (90-100%). Fluroxypyr and mecoprop-P resulted in 83-100 and 80-96% control, respectively, of Galium aparine 383.
Asulam , endothal, ethofumesate did not control it in the UK 384.
Maiazin [15% atrazine + mineral oil] is used for control in Russia 385.
RPA.44750H (375 g/ha dimefuron + 125 g benazolin) at 2 kg/ha, when applied to oilseed rape at the 6-leaf stage, gave good control from autumn to onset of growth in winter oilseed rape in Germany. 386.
Benasalox [benazolin + clopyralid] with Kerb 50 W [propyzamide] or alone gave good control 387.
Basagran (bentazone) in peas, soybeans and flax gave good control. Selectivity in Vicia faba was achieved with reduced application rates until a crop height of 10 cm 388.
SYS 67 Gebifan [dichlorprop] at 1.5 and 3 litres/ha and SYS 67 Gebifan + Basagran [bentazone] at 1 + 1.1 litres and 2 + 2.2 litres/ha gave excellent control in winter wheat in Germany. The addition of ammonium nitrate-urea solution at 110 litres/ha control by 10% 312.
Post-em. 42.5% a.i. wp co formulation of 150 g benazolin/kg + 25 g clopyralid + 250 g dimefuron gave good control from 3 leaf to bud stage of rape in UK 389.
Very susceptible to bromoxynil 390.
Bromoxynil used in winter wheat in Germany 391.
Dimethachlor, delachlor, methoprotryne and butachlor provided effective control in rape in china 392.
Glean controlled Galium aparine at 0.015-0.02 kg/ha in winter wheat in Hungary from tillering to first node stage 393.
chlorsulfuron (20 g a.i./ha) gave best control When applied post em at the 2-leaf stage of cleavers 394.
0.2-0.3 litres Lontrel® [clopyralid] used against Galium aparine by aerial application in Russia on winter cereals 395.
Clopyralid + MCPA + mecoprop and ioxynil + mecoprop applied when the weed infestation was up to 40 cm high gave satisfactory control, dicamba + MCPA was less effective.
Cyanazine + MCPA reduced seed germination but not weed biomass 317.
Phenmedipham + ethofumesate + desmedipham provides good control in sugar beet in Germany 396.
In M. verticillata (forage mallow), Semeron (desmetryn), applied post-em. At 4-6 kg, resulted in the greatest weed control 357.
In the UK, autumn applications of diflufenican followed by reduced doses of Starane 2 (fluroxypyr) gave effective control.
Diflufenican + isoproturon at 50 + 500 g followed by 100 g of fluroxypyr provided good control in winter wheat in UK 397.
Diflufenican is an effective pre-em but requires Pulse for post em activity. It is not translocated in cleavers 398.
Control was around 90% with 180-250 g diflufenican/ha in winter cereals 399.
Diflufenican used for control in winter cereals 400.
Diflufenican was effective at 5-250 g/ha in pots. Selectivity was primarily due to differential uptake and, indirectly, to translocation. 'Depth protection' appeared to be the major reason for the selectivity of soil-applied diflufenican 401.
Pre-em. And early post-em. Application of isoproturon + diflufenican on winter cereals often failed. 0.8 kg isoproturon + 1.0 or 0.15 kg diflufenican + 0.25-0.375 kg quinmerac/ha applied in late Mar was best 402.
Diflufenican + isoproturon gave excellent control in winter cereals in Ireland 403.
Tramat (ethofumesate 500g/L) is registered for pre and post em control of Cleavers in Beet crops and Ryegrass pastures in Australia at rates of 3-6 L/ha.
Racer (flurochloridone) probably provides control in potatoes 404.
Racer (fluorochloridone) at 2.5 litres (3.0 litres on heavy soils)/ha was advocated during 10 days after planting but preferably no later than 10 days before shoot emergence of potatoes gave good control 405.
Fluoroglycofen-ethyl (as Compete 240 EC) in spring and winter cereals gave 80-100% control in Poland 406.
Fluoroglycofen-ethyl 30 g/ha + isoproturon 807 g/ha provided control when applied at the 2 leaf stage of winter wheat in the UK 407.
Fluoroglycofen-ethyl is particularly effective in cereals in France 408.
Fluoroglycofen-ethyl (ethyl O-[5-(2-chloro-alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluro-p-tolyloxy)-2-nitrobenzoyl]glycolate) contact herbicide for cereals gave good control at 30-40g/ha 409.
Flupoxam at 100-200 g/ha applied pre- or post-em. To winter cereals gave good control 410.
Fluroxypyr used in wheat in Italy 411.
Fluroxypyr, _midosulfuron and mixtures with metsulfuron + thifensulfuron gave good control in cereals in Germany 412.
Starane 180 (fluroxypyr 1-methylheptyl ester at 180 g/litre) at 1-1.5 L/ha in maize post em provided good control 413.
Climatic effects outweighed the growth stage effects for contact herbicides for G aparine. Fluroxypyr was most effective at the later growth stages 414.
Fluroxypyr used when Galium aparine present 415.
Fluroxypyr at 0.20 kg/ha gave good control in Pakistan 364.
100-400 g fluroxypyr /ha was applied twice to onions gave good control 416.
Starane 180 gave 98.5% control compared with 90.8% for CMPP [mecoprop] post em in winter and spring cereals 417.
Ariane (60 g fluroxypyr + 23.3 g clopyralid + 266.7 g MCPA/litre) applied from mid tillering to 2 node stage of all cereals gave good control 418.
0.15 kg fluroxypyr + 0.15 kg ioxynil + 0.2 kg bromoxynil/ha applied from 3 leaf to 2 node stage of spring barley and wheat gave good control 419.
0.64 kg dichlorprop + 0.2 kg MCPA + 0.06 kg fluroxypyr/ha applied during tillering in spring cereals gave good control 420.
1 litre Starane 180/ha gave 98.6% control at Zadok's growth stage EC 31/32 and 94.7% at EC 39. Control at EC 29, EC 31/32 and EC 39 was 98.9, 99.4 and 90.2%, respectively in cereals 421.
Best control (100%) in winter wheat was achieved by application of 0.8 litres Starane [fluroxypyr]/ha in spring; the next most effective treatments were Glean 75 DF [chlorsulfuron] or 3 kg Dosanex [metoxuron] applied post-em. In autumn in Czechoslovakia 422.
1-2 kg quinmerac or 0.2 kg fluroxypyr provided control 423.
Fluroxypyr performed better than mecoprop especially when the 0900 h soil temp. at 10 cm were less than about 80C 424.
1-2 litres Starane 250 EC (fluroxypyr)/ha or by a mixture of Starane 250 EC and Aminex Pur (MCPA) in winter wheat and spring barley gave good control until stem height 20 cm 425.
Fluroxypyr was active pre-emergence on Galium aparine and tolerated by the cereals, oats and sunflowers 426.
Optimum time for applying fluroxypyr to control G. aparine was growth stages 29-31 in winter wheat in France 427.
Fluroxypyr at 0.18 kg/ha and mecoprop at 2.24 kg gave best results in winter wheat, rye and barley at 29-31 in Germany 427.
Starane 250 EC at 4L/ha gave excellent control when applied at the emergence of the first leaf whorl in Czechoslovakia 428.
Some populations 3 times more tolerant of Fluroxypyr than others 429.
Fluroxypyr performed better than mecoprop when the soil temp. at 10 cm were <80C 347
0.18 kg fluroxypyr gave good control in winter and spring cereals 430.
Starane 250 EC at 0.8 litre/ha, Dosanex 3 kg and, in most instances, Glean 75 DF 20 g/ha were selective in winter wheat. Mecoprop in the autumn or spring also OK in Czechoslovakia 431.
Fluroxypyr gave better control than mecoprop and less affected by temp. Poor results where weeds were vigorous and the crop thin. The best results from mecoprop or fluroxypyr were when the soil temp. at 10 cm was >80C 432.
0.72 kg a.i. ha-1 of glyphosate applied in 1, 2 or 3 applications gave good control in Denmark 433.
Roundup (360 g glyphosate/litre) at 2 litres/ha + 10 kg ammonium sulphate did not provide consistent control in Germany 434.
Hexazinone gives good control in lucerne in Canada 435.
In Trifolium repens (white clover), the herbicide combination of Pivot 100 LC (imazethapyr) + Dicopur MP (MCPA + mecoprop), applied post-em. At 0.5 + 2 kg/ha, generally resulted in the greatest weed control 357.
Imazethapyr at 0.05 kg/ha + pendimethalin at 1 kg pre or early post em gave good control in peas and beans in the UK 436.
Imazamethabenz-methyl gave good control in wheat or barley in the USA 437.
Tolerates 2,4-D and MCPA 376.
Mecoprop and fluroxypyr more effective at the 3 leaf than at the 1 or 6 leaf stage 355.
Butisan (metazachlor) post em or Trifluralin pre em used for control in oilseed rape in Germany 438.
Pre-em metazachlor at 1.0-1.5 litres preceded by trifluralin at 2.3 litres is used in winter oilseed rape in the UK 439.
Bas 566 H 1000 g metazachlor + 250 g quinmerac applied in pre-em in winter oilseed rape gave good control in western Europe 440.
Metazachlor applied at the seed-leaf stage of winter rape in Sweden gave good control 441.
Methabenzthiazuron + MCPA probably gave good control in Pakistan 364.
Dual [metolachlor] gave 83%-100% control 387.
3-3.5 L/ha of metazachlor and BAS 518 00 H (7-chloro-3-methyl-quinoline-8-carboxylic acid) which are combined in the product BAS 526 00 H give good control pre or post em in winter rape 442.
Dosanex (metoxuron) at 2-3 kg/ha gave 85-90% control of G. aparine in spring barley in Czechoslovakia 443.
Metsulfuron (6 g/ha post em) did not provide control in UK cereals. 444.
0.06 kg thiameturon-methyl + 0.006 kg metsulfuron-methyl/ha to soft winter wheat and 0.04 + 0.004 kg/ha to spring barley gave good control 445.
Metsulfuron methyl at 25-30g only gave 43% control in spring cereals in Germany 446.
Stomp [pendimethalin] applied at 6 litres provided better control than prometryn in carrots in Russia 447.
Pendimethalin + dicamba gave good control in maize in Germany 448.
Pendimethalin + napropamide at 1.0 + 1.6 kg provided good control in strawberries in Ireland 359.
Boxer (prosulfocarb) for autumn application in winter cereals and before sprouting in potatoes in Denmark 449.
Boxer (prosulfocarb) at 5 litres/ha pre-em. Gave good control in potatoes. Urea ammonium nitrate at 100 kg/ha increased the activity of Boxer when applied with the herbicide 450.
Boxer (prosulfocarb) 5 L/ha provided good control as a pre em in potatoes 404.
Boxer (prosulfocarb) in Germany at 4 litres/ha gave good control in winter barley and winter wheat 451.
Pyridate at 900 g/ha and 1800 g was well tolerated by cabbages and Brussels sprouts after the 4-leaf stage and by onions after the 1-leaf stage and gave good control in UK 452.
Pyridate and benazolin + clopyralid gave good control, and metazachlor applied both pre- and post-em. Gave adequate control of Galium aparine in rape in the UK 453.
BASF 526 00 H (metazachlor + quinmerac) used in rape pre- and post-em. Was better than Butisan S (metazachlor) in rape in Germany 454
Quinmerac gives excellent pre em control and satisfactory post em control in sugar beets in Germany 455.
Quinmerac with chloridazon (BAS 52300H and BAS 52302H) could be used pre-em. In sugar beet in Europe provided control 456.
Quinmerac, applied at 0.5-1.0 kg/ha and Oct./Nov. or December provided 89-98% control in the UK 457.
0.5-1 kg quinmerac/ha provided excellent control in UK 458.
Quinmerac controls G. aparine by root inhibition and hormone-type effects 459.
Fiesta (quinmerac 50 g/litre + chloridazon 400 g/litre) at 5 litres/ha pre-em. Followed by 3 litres/ha in a tank mix with phenmedipham post-em. Selectively controlled cleavers in sugar beet in Europe 460.
Quinmerac for control in cereals, oilseed rape and sugar beet 362.
Quinmerac gave good control 461.
Quinmerac controlled Galium aparine and was tolerated by small grains, maize, Brassicas, sugar beet, dwarf beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), onions and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) 426.
Cato [rimsulfuron as 25% water-dispersible granules] at 50 g product/ha + the surfactant Exell at 0.125% gave excellent control when applied to maize at the 2- to 6-leaf stage and to potato plants from when they were 10 cm high 462.
48% triclopyr at 5 litres/ha and 2,4-D amine at 3 litres showed excellent efficacy in ditches in Yugoslavia 463.
Trasulfuron (7.5g/ha post em) provided control in UK cereals 444.
0.01-0.02 kg/ha, triasulfuron gave good control 464
In spring barley grown 50 g Logran 20 WDG + 2 litres Aminex (MCPA)/ha gave complete control in Czechoslovakia 465.
1.5 g triasulfuron/ha + 1.325-1.5 kg isoproturon provided good control in cereals in Europe 466.
Controlled by tri-allate in headlands in the UK 467.
Trifluralin incorporated pre-sowing and nitrofen + linuron pre-em did not control cleavers in Chickpea in Italy 468.
Trifluralin Pre plant incorporated provided good control in marigold (Calendula officinalis) 469.
Post-em. DPX-66037 [triflusulfuron] at 10-15 g/ha, applied with surfactant to sugar beet 3 times with an interval of 7-14 d between treatments, gave 90-100% control in beet in Germany 470.
In rape, effective control measures are 2.5 litres Elancolan [trifluralin]/ha incorporated pre-sowing and 2 litres Butisan S [metazachlor] post-em., with an interim treatment of Starane [fluroxypyr] if required in Germany 332.
Sulfonylureas have lack of activity against cleavers in Germany 471.
Moderate control with Glean Logran and Stomp pre and post em in canary grass (Phalaris canariensis L.) 472.
AC 322,140 (1-[2-(cyclopropylcarbonyl)phenyl]sulfamoyl-3-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-urea) provided good control in wheat and barley 473;473.
BAS 51800H provided good control in small grains, maize, perennial ryegrass [Lolium perenne], Brassicas, sugar beet, onions and dwarf beans [Phaseolus vulgaris]. When applied post-em. Most of the activity appeared to be via the soil 426.
DPX-66037 (methyl 2-[4-dimethylamino-6-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylcarbamoyl sulfamoyl]-m-toluate) gave good control pre em in sugar beet 474.
ET-751 (ethyl 2-chloro-5-(4-chloro-5-difluoromethoxy-1-methylpyrazol-3-yl)-4-fluorophenoxyacetate) provided good control in barley and wheat in France 475.
F8426 (ethyl 2-chloro-3-[2-chloro-4-fluoro-5-(4-difluoromethyl-4,5-dihydro-3-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenyl]propionate) provided good control in cereals in USA Europe and Australia 476.
HC-252 (ethyl o-[2-chloro-5-(2-chloro-alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-p-tolyloxy)benzoyl]-L-lactate) at 10-20g/ha gave good control at the 2-5 whorl stage in winter wheat, winter barley, peas, soybeans and groundnuts in Hungary 477.
Hoe 75032 - a selective post emergence herbicide to control Galium spp. And other weeds in cereals 478.
NC-330 at 100-150 g/ha at tillering in winter wheat gave good control 479.
S-23121 (N-[4-chloro-2-fluoro-5-[(1-methyl-2-propynyl) oxy]phenyl]-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalimide) pre- and post-em. Herbicide in cereals gave good control in Europe 480.
4 kg SC 0574 (S-benzyl dipropylthiocarbamate) pre-em. Or early post-em gave control in winter wheat, winter barley and winter rye 481. SC-0574 (S-benzyl dipropylthiocarbamate) for pre and early post em in winter wheat, barley and rye 482.
SC 9911 - Influence of weather and time of sowing on efficacy 483.
Probably around 1-2 plants/m2.
Ryegrass and Kikuyu pastures
Graze pasture continuously from the break of the season to keep it less than 5 cm tall. Apply 6 L/ha in May/June when Cleavers are less than 10 cm long. Grazing 7 days after spraying may improve control. This treatment will adversely affect Clover production.
The cuticle has an amorphous wax which makes penetration by most herbicides more difficult 292.
Triazine resistant populations in France 484.
Tolerates some phenoxy herbicides 364.
Slender Bedstraw (Galium divaricatum)
Small Bedstraw (Galium murale)
Three horned Bedstraw (Galium tricornutum) has curved fruiting pedicels (stalks) and no hairs on the fruit or upper surface of the leaves.
Plants of similar appearance:
Field Madder (Sherardia arvensis). Cleavers can be distinguished from Field Madder by the shape of the cotyledon in the young stage, and in more advanced plants by the size of the leaves and the number in a whorl, and the colour of the flowers. Cleavers have hairs on the edges of the leaves that point backwards (away from the leaf tip) whereas Field Madder has hairs that point forward.
485 has colour photos and identification tips.
Auld, B.A. and Medd R.W. (1992). Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P218. Photo.
Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia). P800.
Burbidge, N.T. and Gray, M. (1970). Flora of the Australian Capital Territory. (Australian National University Press, Canberra). P339.
Cunningham, G.M., Mulham, W.E., Milthorpe, P.L. and Leigh, J.H. (1992). Plants of Western New South Wales. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P620. Photo.
Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Cousens, R.D., Dodd, J. and Lloyd, S.G. (1997). Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. (Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia). P210. Photo.
Hyde-Wyatt, B.H. and Morris, D.I. (1975). Tasmanian weed handbook. (Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, Hobart, Tasmania). P61. Diagrams.
Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).
Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #571.1.
Moerkerk, M.R. and Barnett, A.G. (1998). More Crop Weeds. R.G. and F.J. Richardson, Melbourne. P115. Diagrams. Photos.
Figures in brackets, for example 296, refer to the main reference database. Contact HerbiGuide for more information.
Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.