3 ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: Sulfometuron methyl 2g/kg + terbacil 44g/kg
4 CHEMICAL GROUP: B, C.
Sulfonylurea and Uracil
5 RELATED HERBICIDES:
Group B herbicides
Imazapyr 250g/L or 750g/kg
Tribenuron methyl 750g/kg
Metsulfuron 68g/kg + thifensulfuron 682g/kg
Imazamox 33g/L + imazapyr 15g/L
Iodosulfuron 50g/kg + mefenpyr
Imazapyr 175g/L + imazethapyr 525g/L
Ethametsulfuron methyl 750g/kg
Imazapic 525 + Imazapyr 175g/L
Raptor WG 700
Imazamox 700 g/Kg
Imazethapyr 700g/kg or 240g/L
Group C herbicides
Atrazine 500 Flowable
Atrazine 900 Granules
Atrazine plus Simazine
Atrazine 250g/L + simazine 250g/L
Diuron 500 Flowable
Diuron 900 Wettable Granules
Atrazine 620g/kg + hexazinone 210 g/kg
Forest Mix Granules
Atrazine 150g/kg + hexazinone 50 g/kg
Gesagard 500 SC
Lexone plus Simazine
Metribuzin + simazine
Lexone plus Tribunil
Metribuzin 140g/kg + Methabenzthiazuron 560g/kg
Linuron 500g/L or 500g/kg
Propanil 360 g/L
Simazine Flowable 500
Simazine Granules 900
6 GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
It is a relatively non selective, residual and translocated herbicide that is absorbed mainly through the roots. Its main uses are for the control of a large variety of grass and broad-leaved weeds in Eucalypt plantations. It is of low toxicity to mammals, birds and fish. As a granule there is little risk of damage due to drift. Its main environmental hazard is transport in water over recently treated areas. Plants resistant to sulfometuron have developed and are expected after repeated use.
7 APPLICATION METHODS AND TIPS:
It is applied as a granule.
Young, actively growing weeds are most sensitive Under cold, wet or stressful conditions the weeds become more tolerant of the herbicide.
Don't apply to wet trees. Best results when there is a little wind to dislodge granules from tree or crop foliage.
Light rain following application activates the herbicide. On steep ground granules can be transported in water flows and cause off target damage.
Rainfast immediately. Application to wet trees or crops may cause damage.
Frost effects: Little direct effect. Increase risk of crop damage in frosty weather due to slow tree growth.
Wind: No direct effect but some applicators are affected by wind.
Inversions: No effect.
Temperature: Symptoms are slower to develop under low temperature conditions.
Delta T and relative humidity: No effect.
Adjuvants are not required.
Wetting agents: Not required.
Spray oils: Not required.
10 WATER QUALITY:
Not applicable for granular applications.
Compatible with most other granular products and fertilizers.
Apply by ground or aircraft. Specialised equipment is usually used.
13 SPRAYER DECONTAMINATION:
Use compressed air.
Clean with compressed air.
Soak removable parts in a mixture of 500 mL chlorine bleach per 10 L water for at least 30 minutes.
Rinse equipment with soapy water (eg 500 mL or g of Drive, Dynamo, Omo or Surf per 100 L water) or water plus 0.25% wetting agent to remove all traces of fertilisers or products containing ammonia, such as ammonium sulphate or ammonium nitrate, before adding chlorine bleach, because bleach and ammonia will react to release a toxic gas.
Rinse equipment a mixture of 300 mL household chlorine (4%) bleach per 100 L water. Rinse with clean water to remove traces of bleach.
Rinse removable with water.
14 HERBICIDE RESISTANCE:
Plant populations tolerant to sulfometuron are expected to occur naturally after repeated use.
Sulfometuron may not be effective on some group B resistant plants.
15 REPLANTING INTERVALS:
Most broadacre crops
12 months or more depending on rate.
16 WITHHOLDING PERIODS:
17 RE-ENTRY PERIOD:
Not required. Wear protective clothing if in contact with the recently treated plants.
18 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:
Overalls, boots and washable hat. Use gloves and face shield when loading or applying by hand. Use a dust mask when pouring granules into hoppers.
Longer residual on high pH alkaline soils.
More likely to leach and cause crop damage on soils with low clay and organic mater contents.
Don't use on gravelly or rocky soils or those with exposed subsoil.
Moisture required for herbicide action.
Ineffective on dry soils.
Reduced weed control and may be crop damage on waterlogged soils.
20 MODE OF ACTION:
The sulfometuron component Inhibits the ALS enzyme. The terbacil component inhibits photosynthesis at photosystem II.
Most of the product is absorbed by the roots because it is applied as a granule. Absorption by roots from the soil solution is not as efficient as leaf absorption by formulations that sprayed, but this is compensated for by better movement up to the leaves. Within the plant, sulfometuron stops cell division very quickly by its action on the ALS enzyme. Degradation products are non toxic and herbicidally inactive. Secondary effects on photosynthesis, respiration and ethylene production produce the symptoms of yellowing and reddening of grasses and leaf drop in broad-leaved weeds.
Species tolerant to sulfometuron such as the Bermuda grass (couch) degrade it more quickly than do sensitive plants. Herbicide resistance appears to be due to plants with a less sensitive ALS enzyme.
It does not normally affect seed germination.
The tolerance of crops or trees to sulfometuron is reduced in soils with high pH, sandy soils, soils with marginal zinc, manganese or copper levels and if leaching rains occur soon after spraying.
On areas where sulfometuron has induced trace element deficiencies the following may reduce losses;
1 kg zinc sulphate plus
1 kg copper sulphate (or 0.5 kg copper oxychloride) plus
4 kg manganese sulphate (or 6 L Mangasol) plus
250 mL wetting agent in 100 L/ha of water applied in the cool of the day or at night.
5-7 days later spray a mix of 30 kg Urea in 100 L/ha water in the cool of the day. Pre mix urea in water to prevent freezing in the spray tank.
Effect on Clover Species:
Effect on Medic Species:
Effect on Lucerne:
Kills young lucerne and severely damages established lucerne.
Effect on Native Plants:
Eucalypts are reasonably tolerant. Low levels of run off not expected to cause significant problems. Water flowing from treated areas can cause significant damage along the water courses.
22 DISEASE AND INSECT EFFECTS:
23 PLANT SYMPTOMS:
Growth stops soon after application. About a week later plants will start to yellow or redden. In broad-leaved weeds this may be an intervenal yellowing. Annual weeds are usually dead within 4 weeks of spraying. Under cold and wet conditions they may remain alive as severely stunted plants with few roots and die from water stress in spring. Sulfometuron and terbacil has little effect on germination and weeds may emerge and grow for a week or two before dying.
Low toxicity to mammals, birds, bees and invertebrates. Toxic to algae.
Skin: Mild to not irritating (Guinea pig). Not a skin sensitizer.
Eye: minimal to mildly irritating and reversible.
Vapour inhalation LC50: >5.3 mg/L air for rats for 4 hours. Low toxicity.
Chronic oral toxicity NOEL: 50 ppm for two years in rats, 200 ppm in dog. Low toxicity.
Not carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic in animal studies (i.e. does not cause cancer). At very high doses of 5000 ppm reduced fecundity has been observed and some maternal deaths.
Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI):
Birds: Practically non toxic.
Acute dietary LC50 >5000 ppm for mallard ducks and bobwhite quail for sulfometuron methyl.
8 day dietary LC50 >5000 ppm.
Fish: low toxicity.
LC50 >12.5 ppm, sulfometuron.
96 hr LC50 >148 mg/L for rainbow trout and bluegill sunfish, sulfometuron.
Invertebrates: low toxicity.
48 hr NOEC >150 mg/L for sulfometuron, Daphnia magna.
Bees: Practically non toxic. LD50 >12.5 ug/bee, sulfometuron.
Poison schedule: Not a scheduled poison.
Mammalian toxicity: Moderate.
Acute oral LD50: 934 mg/kg (female rat, terbacil), 1255 mg/kg (male rat, terbacil) [For comparison table salt is 3000 mg/kg]
Acute dermal LD50: > 5000 mg/kg (rabbit).
Skin: Not irritating. Not sensitising (Guinea pig)
Eye: Mild reversible irritant (rabbit)
Vapour inhalation: LC50 > 5.3 mg/L air (rat). Low toxicity.
Chronic oral toxicity: NOEL 50 mg/kg for two years.
Not carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic in animal studies (i.e. does not cause cancer or reproductive problems).
Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI):
Birds: Low toxicity.
Oral LC50 >715 mg/kg for bobwhite quail, terbacil
Oral LC50 >5000 mg/kg for mallard duck, terbacil
Fish: Moderate toxicity
96 hr LC50 >46.2 mg/L for rainbow trout, terbacil.
96 hr LC50 >102.9 mg/kg for bluegill sunfish, terbacil.
Invertebrates: Moderate toxicity.
48 hr LC50 68 mg/L for terbacil, Daphnia.
Bees: Low toxicity.
Algae: Very toxic.
96 hr EC50 = 0.03 mg/L for terbacil, green algae.
25 TOXICITY SYMPTOMS:
Single doses of sulfometuron do not usually evoke any symptoms in animals.
Repeated high doses may lead to red blood cell destruction and other effects.
May cause eye irritation, discomfort, tearing or blurred vision.
Overexposure on skin may cause a rash.
26 FIRST AID:
If SWALLOWED: Do NOT induce vomiting. Do NOT give anything by mouth to a semiconscious or unconscious patient.
If in EYES: Irrigate with plenty of water for !5 minutes. If the patient has contact lens, remove these after the first 5 minutes of irrigation.
If on SKIN: Rinse with plenty of water, remove contaminated clothing, wash with soap and water.
If INHALED: Remove patient to fresh air. See a doctor.
Advice to doctor: Treat symptomatically.
Contact the Poisons Information Centre on 131126.
27 ENVIRONMENTAL FATE:
Half life in soil: Sulfometuron has a half life in soil of about 12 months. Its half life is much longer in soils with high pH. At a soil pH of less than 7 it is broken down by hydrolysis and microbial degradation. At a pH of more than 8 there is little hydrolysis and only microbial breakdown. Breakdown is most rapid in warm, moist, acid and light textured soils with a high organic level.
Half life in water: 18 days at pH5 and 25 C. 1.8 days at pH5 and 35 C. 20 days at Little is naturally degraded due to exposure to sunlight and volatilisation.
On the EPA classification of mobility in the soil it ranges from low mobility to mobile depending on the soil type. Mobility usually increases with increasing soil pH and decreasing organic matter.
Ground water contamination:
Accumulation in milk and tissues: Sulfometuron does not accumulate in the milk or tissues of animals. Most is excreted intact in the urine of monogastric animals or as a conjugate in ruminants.
pH stability: More stable at higher pH.
Photolysis rate: Low.
Hydrolysis half life: Depends on pH. It is shorter at low pH and high temperatures.
Biodegradation rate: Slow.
Do not use near desirable vegetation.
Half life in soil: Months
Half life in water: days at pH5 and 35 C.
It has an EPA classification for soil mobility that ranges from
Ground water contamination
Accumulation in milk and tissues.
Hydrolysis half life:
28 REGISTERED CROPS:
See HerbiGuide Species Solution tab.
29 REGISTERED WEEDS:
See HerbiGuide Species Solution tab.
30 REGULATION AND LEGAL:
UN number: None allocated.
CAS numbers: Sulfometuron 74222-97-2. Terbacil 5902-51-2.
Hazchem code: None allocated.
NOHSC classification: Not hazardous. No risk or safety phrases.
Dangerous goods class: Not a dangerous good. No special transport requirements.
No special transport requirements.
Proper shipping name:
Form: Solid granules, dry flowable.
Water solubility at 25 C. - 8 ppm at pH 5; 70 ppm at pH 7. Disperses in water.
Octanol:Water ratio at 25 C. - 15 at pH 5; 0.31 at pH 7 for sulfometuron.
LogPow 1.91 for terbacil.
Soil organic carbon absorption coefficient (Koc):
Vapour Pressure at 25 C. - Very low. 5.5 x 10-16 for sulfometuron.
Dissociation constant - 5.2 pKa (sulfometuron)
Melting point - 203 - 205 C for sulfometuron methyl.
Boiling point: C.
Molecular weight - 364.39
Bulk density: 1.3 g/cm3 for product
pH 8 at 35 C (sulfometuron). Similar acidity to vinegar or acetic acid.
Flammability: Not flammable.
Flammable limit in air: LEL = g/L. Not normally an explosion hazard but dust may form an explosive mixture with air.
Shelf Life: 5 years.
(When Stored under Ideal Conditions)
Sweep up spills.
Extinguish with water spray, foam, carbon dioxide or dry agent.
Fine dust in air may explode if exposed to a high temperature ignition source.
Prevent contaminated water reaching desirable vegetation.
Ashton and Monaco (1992)
Kearney and Kaufman (1988)
Macspred (2001) Eucmix Gr label 49420/0401
Macspred (2004) Eucmix Gr MSDS
HerbiGuide (2007) Terbacil and sulfometuron data.
Collated by HerbiGuide. For more information see www.herbiguide.com.au or phone 08 98444064.