|1 Trade name||Manufacturer||Form|
|BIOTIS HI-LOAD HERBICIDE||BIOTIS LIFE SCIENCE PTY LTD||AC|
|CONCENTRATE ROUNDUP POWERMAX WEEDKILLER||MONSANTO AUSTRALIA LTD||AC|
|COUNTRY GLYPHOSATE 540 HERBICIDE||ACCENSI PTY LTD||AC|
|FIREBOLT HERBICIDE||SIPCAM PACIFIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD||AC|
|RHODIA GLYPHOSATE POTASSIUM HIGH LOAD HERBICIDE||RHODIA AUSTRALIA PTY LIMITED||AC|
|ROUNDUP POWER MAX HERBICIDE BY MONSANTO||MONSANTO AUSTRALIA LTD||AC|
|RYGEL CLEARUP IMPRESS 540 HERBICIDE||RYGEL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD||AC|
|TOUCHDOWN HITECH HERBICIDE||SYNGENTA CROP PROTECTION PTY LIMITED||EC|
3 ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: 500-540 g/L Glyphosate potassium salt.4 CHEMICAL GROUP: M.
|5 RELATED HERBICIDES:||None|
7 APPLICATION METHODS AND TIPS:Glyphosate is applied by hydraulic nozzles or CDA (Controlled Droplet Application) equipment mounted on air craft or ground vehicles for broadcast application. It is usually mixed with water. Its low toxicity (to the operator) makes it ideal for directed application using hand held equipment.
9 ADJUVANTS:Pulse may increase the activity of glyphosate on broad leaved species but often reduces its activity on grasses. It may also improve the rainfastness on some species. It usually shows greatest benefit on large broadleaved species such as Bracken, Blackberry and Gorse.
11 COMPATIBILITY:Glyphosate combines (chelates) with di and trivalent ions. Copper, zinc, manganese, calcium and magnesium seriously reduce the effectiveness of glyphosate. This chelation is related to pH and acidifiers can be used to reduce problems with hard water. Slightly salty water and phosphates have little effect on glyphosate activity.
14 HERBICIDE RESISTANCE:In 1996, annual ryegrass populations tolerant to glyphosate were discovered in Australia. Practices to reduce the development of herbicide resistance should be integrated into systems reliant on glyphosate.
18 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:Wear safety goggles when handling concentrate.
20 MODE OF ACTION:Glyphosate is slowly absorbed through the foliage and translocated to growing parts of the plants. It inhibits an enzyme in the shikimic acid pathway which reduces the supply of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) and consequently stops protein synthesis. It also affect potassium metabolism. Affected plants turn yellow because no new green chlorophyll is produced. Absorption of glyphosate is reduced in plants with waxy, thick or dehydrated cuticles. Thus, water stressed plants absorb less glyphosate. Surfactants, oils, ammonium, sodium or potassium ions increase absorption but have a variable effect on phytotoxicity because of their variable effects on translocation.
23 PLANT SYMPTOMS:Typically, young growth becomes yellow 7 to 14 days after application followed by older growth and then death of the plants. On broadleaved perennials there is often inter venal yellowing, sprouting of secondary buds and compact new growth that looks like 'witches brooms'. These grow for a period then yellow and die as glyphosate is translocated from within the plant to these new sites of growth. This may occur many months after treatment.
SECONDARY EFFECTS:Glyphosate affects the growth regulating hormone (IAA) in plants. This stimulates the growth of secondary buds and causes abnormal growth.
24 TOXICITY:Mammalian toxicity - low.
25 TOXICITY SYMPTOMS:Glyphosate does not usually cause any symptoms because of its low toxicity. Some of the formulating agents may irritate eyes and skin causing a rash if the product is misused. Gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea have been reported and are probably caused by the surfactants in many formulations.
26 FIRST AID:Contact a doctor or Poisons Information Centre on 13 11 26.
27 ENVIRONMENTAL FATE:Glyphosate is inactivated on contact with clay particles. This bonding is so strong that glyphosate appears to be non residual and does not move through the soil. Microflora degrade glyphosate under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions at variable rates. This results in a half life ranging from a few days to over a year. Chemical and photolytic degradation are usually negligible though some photolytic degradation has been reported in water.
31 PROPERTIES:Water solubility at 25 C. - 1.16 g/100 mL;
32 COMMENTS:Only store in Stainless steel, aluminium, fibreglass or plastic lined containers. Do not expose glyphosate to galvanised or mild steel containers or pipes. It will react, producing hydrogen gas, which may form an explosive mixture capable of causing serious personal injury.
GLYPHOSATE2. Concentration of Active Constituent : 450 g/L
|6.||Colour : Blue|
|7.||Flammability : Non flammable.|
|8.||Dangerous Goods Class :|
|10.||Mixtures Compatibility :|
|11.||Registered Crop(s) : Pre-plant to all crops and pastures.|
|12.||Effect of Soil Texture on Herbicide : Not relevant.|
|13.||Effect of Soil pH on Herbicide : No effect.|
|14.||Effect of Soil Organic Matter on Herbicide : Not relevant.|
|15.||Mode of Action : Foliar translocation, root uptake is precluded by soil inactivation of glyphosate. Inhibits amino acid and protein synthesis. Post-emergent, non selective.|
|18.||Rates Selection : Lower rate grasses prior to tillering, broadleaf weeds under 10-15 cm diameter/high. Higher rates for grasses after tillering, broadleaf weeds over 10 -15 cm diameter/high and perennial weeds.|
|19.||Crop Damage (Crop Tolerance) : Not relevant.|
|20.||Effect on Crop : Not relevant.|
|22.||Soil Moisture at Application :|
|23.||Frost Effects : Frost preceding application can reduce efficacy, allowing plants to regrow.|
|24.||Frost Free Days Required After Application : Not relevant.|
|25.||Effect of Application Water Quality on Herbicide :|
|26.||Recommended Water Volume : 30 - 100 L/ha boom.|
|27.||Nozzle Type : Flat fan.|
|28.||Recommended Nozzle Pressure : 240 - 280 kPa (35 - 40.6 psi).|
|29.||Recommended Filter Size :|
|30.||Recommended Wetter : Non-ionic surfactant|
|31.||Other Additives : Ammonium Sulphate (Boost or Liase). Must be free of metallic contaminants or the enhancement of glyphosate will not occur.|
|32.||Rain Fastness : 6 hours.|
|33.||Time Interval Before Effect is Noticed : 2 - 4 days annuals, 7 - 10 days perennials. Cool or cloudy weather following application may delay appearance of visible effects.|
|34.||Plant Symptoms : Visual symptoms develop slowly and are:|
1.Wilting, chlorosis and necrosis of young foliage which slowly spreads to older foliage.
2.The regrowth of perennial plants may be distorted with wrinkled or deformed leaves.
|35.||Effect of Herbicide/Disease Interaction on Crop : Not relevant.|
|36.||Withholding Period : None.|
|37.||Plant-Back Period : No plant-back period, but at least 1 day delay recommended before planting to allow complete translocation of the herbicide within the plant. Observe 2,4-D, Banvel, and Glean plant-backs periods if tank mixed.|
|38.||Spray Tank Clean-Up : Flush with water.|
|39.||Other Comments : If there is a lot of organic matter on soil surface, problems with microbial toxins and nutrient tie-up may be encountered. Emerging plants may be affected. Do NOT hold spray mixtures in galvanised or unlined steel containers (except stainless steel) for extended periods. Product or spray solutions react with galvanised or unlined steel containers or spray tanks producing hydrogen gas that may form a highly combustible gas mixture that can flash or explode if ignited by open flame, spark, welder's torch, lighted cigarette or other ignition source.|
33 REFERENCES:Starke R.J. and Oliver L.R. (1998) Weed Science 46:652-660.
Acknowledgments:Collated by HerbiGuide. For more information see www.herbiguide.com.au or phone 08 98444064.