Summary:Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) is a small, invasive, sap-sucking insect of grape vines that causes substantial physical and economic effects on commercial grapevines. It is a monophagous and sedentary gall forming phylloxerid that establishes an intimate association with the roots of grape vines (Powell et al., 2013; Forneck and Huber, 2009; Granett et al., 2001). The insect forms organoid galls on fibrous root tips (nodosities) and callus tissue on mature roots (tuberosities).
Description:Almost microscopic, related to the aphids.
Key Characters:Forms galls on leaves and roots of grape vines.
Biology:Reproduces by viviparous parthenogenesis. Completing a generation on susceptible cultivars requires 16 days at 24ºC and longer on resistant cultivars of grape vine.
Life Cycle:Its life cycle has sexual and asexual portions with forms that feed from leaf and root galls. Not all forms occur throughout the insect's range. Root forms predominate on Vitis vinifera cultivars; leaf forms predominate on other Vitis species characteristic of the American native range. Damage to grapevines is by secondary soil borne pathogens attacking the feeding site and by physiological interaction of the insect with the grapevine (Granett et al, 2001).
Habitats:Vines grown in sandy soils do not support damaging phylloxera populations. This has been attributed to the inability of phylloxera crawlers to disperse from infested to uninfested roots because of sand texture. Phylloxera populations in clay soils tends to be large (Granett et al, 2001).
SoilCharacteristics such as low aluminium exchange capacity and acidic pH are associated with high grape phylloxera abundance above and below ground in commercial vineyards in Victoria, Australia (Powell et al., 2003).
Origin and History:Described in 1855 from native American Vitis (Granett et al, 2001).
Distribution:It is a worldwide pest of grapevines.
Significance:Historically, one of the most economically significant insect pests of vineyards has been grape phylloxera.
Detrimental:The California failure of the AXR#1 rootstock resulted in an estimated billion-dollar loss to growers. Phylloxera has still not infested a number of important viticultural regions around the world. In these regions phylloxera-resistant rootstocks are not used and when phylloxera arrives, the billion-dollar loss experienced in California with AXR#1's failure will seem modest. Alternative and supplemental control methods are needed to back up rootstock use and prevent such losses in the future (Granett et al, 2001).
Legislation:Australian state legislation requires the declaration of a new grape phylloxera infested zone (PIZ) with a minimum 5 km boundary from the initial detection point.
Management and Control:Tolerant grape vine (Vitis spp.) rootstocks form organoid root galls on fibrous root tips to protect the plant (Eitle et al, 2019).
Thresholds:The detection of leaf-galling grape phylloxera strains is evident by visual inspection during the spring and summer.
Related Species:It is a single species in this genera.
|Compound Class||Active Ingredient||(Trade name) Trial Location Trial Type Phylloxera Type Selected Sources|
Carbon disulphide France Field Radicicolae Ordish, 1972
Sulphocarbonates France Field Radicicolae Ordish, 1972; Campbell, 2004
Enzone USA Field Radicicolae R. Loveless (as cited by Herbert, 2005); Weber
|Organophosphates||Carbofuran USA, Australia Field and Laboratory Radicicolae Rammer, 1980; Granett & Timper, 1987;Buchanan, 1990|
Fenamiphos Germany, USA and AustraliaField Radicicolae Homeyer & Wagner, 1981; Buchanan, 1990; de Klerk, 1979
Phosphorothioic acid Canada Field Radicicolae Stevenson, 1968
Baygono-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamateCanada Field Radicicolae Stevenson, 1968
Disulfoton South Africa and Canada Field Radicicolae Stevenson, 1968; de Klerk, 1979
Oxamyl Australia Field Radicicolae Buchanan & Godden, 1989; Nazer et al ., 2006
Aldicarb Australia Field Radicicolae Buchanan & Godden, 1989; Loubser et al.,1992
|Organochlorines|| Hexachlorobutadiene South Africa Field Radicicolae de Klerk, 1979|
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene USA Field and Laboratory Radicicolae Cox et al., 1960
Endosulfan USA and Canada Field Gallicolae Stevenson, 1970; Williams, 1979
|Neonicotinoids||Thiamethoxam Australia and USA Laboratory Radicicolae Granett et al., 2001; Nazer et al., 2006; Herbert et al., 2008a,b|
Imidacloprid South Africa, Jordan, USA and Australia Field and Laboratory Radicicolae and Gallicolae C. Coetzee & R. Loveless (as cited by Herbert,2005); Herbert et al., 2008; Nazer et al.,2006; Al-Antary et al., 2008
Spirotetramat USA Field Gallicolae Nauen et al., 2008; van Steenwyk et al., 2009;Johnson et al. 2010