Hare's-ear

Conringia orientalis (L.) C. Presl.

Synonyms - Erysimum perfoliatum, Erysimum orientale.

Family: Brassicaceae.

Names:

Conringia celebrates the German physician Dr. Hermann Conring (1606-1681).
Hares ear refers to the shape of the leaf.

Other Names:

Hare's-ear Cabbage
Hare's-ear Mustard
Treacle Mustard
Wild Cabbage

Summary:

An erect, white flowered, annual hairless, plant with stem clasping leaves and long angular pods.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two. Oval. Tip flattened or slightly notched. Sides convex. Base tapered. Surface hairless. Petiole shorter than the blade.

First leaves:

Oval. Hairless. Tip slightly notched. Veins obvious and lighter on the top surface.

Leaves:

Alternate.
Petiole - none.
Blade - Green with yellowish veins. Basal leaves, egg shaped to oval. 100-120 mm long, narrowed at the base. Tip slightly notched to rounded. Sides convex. Base stem clasping to tapered. Surface hairless with obvious veins.
Stem leaves - Oblong. Clasp stem by 2 rounded auricles so that they are arrow shaped.

Stems:

Up to 700 mm. Branched. Hairless. Smooth with a waxy bloom.

Flower head:

Long raceme.

Flowers:

White.
Ovary - superior. 15-20 ovules. Stigma depressed-capitate.
Sepals - 4, erect, often purplish.
Petals - 4. Yellowish white, spreading in the form of a cross. Longer than the sepals.
Stamens - 6.
Anthers -

Fruit:

Erect, long, cylindrical pod, 4 angled due to prominent midribs of the valves. 80-120 mm long. 3 mm thick with woolly partitions inside. Short beak. Falls off before maturity. Opens from the base. Seeds in a single row.

Seeds:

Many, Cylindrical to oval, 3 mm long x 1.5 mm diameter, Surface hairless and has a granular texture when moistened.

Roots:

Key Characters:

Long angular pods. Seeds in a single row. Stem leaves with smooth edges and arrow shaped. Incumbent cotyledons.

Biology:

Life cycle:

Annual. Seeds germinate in autumn and winter.

Physiology:

Reproduction:

By seed.

Flowering times:

Spring.

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

Hybrids:

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Origin and History:

Mediterranean, Central Europe, Asia.

Distribution:

NSW, QLD, SA, VIC.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate.

Soil:

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Use as salad vegetable in Europe.

Detrimental:

Weed of crops and fallows.

Toxicity:

Not recorded as toxic.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Manually remove isolated plants.
Prevent seed set. Spray small infested areas with 10 g/ha Eclipse® plus 500mL/ha of Brodal® plus 1% spray oil in winter each year.
Most of the Brassicaceae weeds have dormant seeds that continue to germinate throughout the season and for several years. They often mature and set seed very quickly. Manual removal is effective but must be done at least every 8-10 weeks. Once pods are formed, seed will often mature even if the plant has been uprooted. Soil disturbance often leads to a flush of seedlings.
Many are somewhat unpalatable, so grazing only offers partial control. They often flourish in under-grazed, sunny areas.
In bushland situations, fairly selective control can be achieved with 100 mL spray oil plus 0.1 g Eclipse® or 0.5 g Logran® in 10 L water. 5 mL Brodal® is often added to this mix to provide residual control of seedlings. Spray the plants until just wet from the seedling stage up to pod formation.
Isolated plants should be removed manually and burnt if flowering or seeding and a 10 m buffer area sprayed with 10 mL Brodal® in 10 L water.
500 mL/ha of glyphosate(450g/L) can be used at flowering to reduce the seed set of most species on roadsides without causing significant damage to most native plants.
Wick application with 1 part glyphosate(450g/L) in 2 parts water or overall spraying with 100 mL glyphosate(450g/L) in 10 L water provides reasonable control of most Brassicaceae species though Wild Radish tends to regrow.

Herbicide resistance:

Biological Control:

Related plants:

None.
Flax-leaf Alyssum (Alyssum linifolium)
Wall Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)

Black Mustard (Brassica nigra)
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)
Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera)
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis)
Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala)
Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes)
Mediterranean Turnip (Brassica tournefortii)
Rape or Canola (Brassica napus var. napus)
Rapeseed (Brassica rapa var. sylvestris)
Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda)
Smooth Stemmed Turnip (Brassica barrelieri subsp. oxyrrhina was Brassica oxyrrhina)
Swede (Brassica napus var. napobrassica)
Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa)
Twiggy Turnip (Brassica fruticulosa)
Winter Rape (Brassica napus var. biennis)
Brassica elongata

Sea Rocket (Cakile maritima)
White Ball Mustard (Calepina irregularis)
Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)
Common Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta)
Wood Bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa) is not in WA.
Ward's Weed (Carrichtera annua)
Wall Rocket (Diplotaxis muralis)
Sand Rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Heliophila pusilla
Oval Purse (Hornungia procumbens was Hymenobolus procumbens)

Argentine Peppercress (Lepidium bonariense) is often found around granite rocks.
Common Peppercress (Lepidium africanum) is common in WA.
Field Cress (Lepidium campestre) has clasping stem leaves.
Garden Cress (Lepidium sativa)
Hoary Cress (Lepidium draba was Cardaria draba)
Lesser Swinecress (Lepidium didymum was Coronopus didymus)
Matted Peppercress (Lepidium pubescens)
Perennial Peppercress (Lepidium latifolium)
Virginian Peppercress (Lepidium virginicum)
(Lepidium oxytrichum)
(Lepidium perfoliatum)

Sweet Alyssum (Lobularia maritima)
Common Stock (Matthiola incana)
Night-scented Stock (Matthiola longipetala)
Muskweed (Myagrum perfoliatum) is not in WA.
Ball mustard (Neslia paniculata)

Cultivated Radish (Raphanus sativus).
Sea Radish (Raphanus maritimus).

Turnip Weed (Rapistrum rugosum)
Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum)
White Mustard (Sinapis alba) has white seed.
Charlock (Sinapis arvensis)

Sisymbrium altissimum is not in WA.
Smooth Mustard (Sisymbrium erysimoides)
London Rocket (Sisymbrium irio)
Hedge Mustard (Sisymbrium officinale)
Indian Hedge Mustard (Sisymbrium orientale)0
Sisymbrium runcinatum
African Turnip Weed (Sisymbrium thellungii) is not in WA.

Succowia balearica is in Kings Park in Perth.

Plants of similar appearance:

Cruciferous weeds.
The native Brassicaceae species usually have short, broad and smooth pods.

References:

Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia). P377.

Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #343.1.

Wilding, J.L. et al. (1987). Crop weeds. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P79. Diagrams. Photos.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.