Ioxynil

1 Trade nameManufacturerForm
TOTRIL SELECTIVE HERBICIDEBAYER CROPSCIENCE PTY LTDEMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATE



Previously sold as Unyunox

2 PRICE:

$60.5/L

3 ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: Ioxynil 250g/L

4 CHEMICAL GROUP: C

Nitrile or hydroxybenzonitrile group. Inhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem II.

5 RELATED HERBICIDES:

Ametryn 500Ametryn 500g/L
Atrazine 500 FlowableAtrazine 500-600g/L
Atrazine 900 GranulesAtrazine 900g/kg
Atrazine plus SimazineAtrazine 250g/L + simazine 250g/L
BasagranBentazone 480g/L
BetanalPhenmedipham 157g/L
Bromacil 800Bromacil 800g/kg
Bromoxynil 200Bromoxynil 200g/L
ChloridazonChloridazon 650g/kg
Cyanazine 900Cyanazine 900g/kg
DiuronDiuron 500g/L
DiuronDiuron 900g/kg
Forest MixAtrazine 620g/kg + hexazinone 210 g/kg
Forest Mix GranulesAtrazine 150g/kg + hexazinone 50 g/kg
Gesagard 500 SCPrometryn 500g/L
GraslanTebuthiuron 200g/kg (or400g/kg)
IoxynilIoxynil 250g/L
Linuron 500Linuron 500g/L or 500g/kg (or800g/kg)
Metribuzin 750Metribuzin 750g/kg
Metribuzin plus SimazineMetribuzin + simazine
Metribuzin plus TribunilMetribuzin 140g/kg + Methabenzthiazuron 560g/kg
Prometryn 900Prometryn 900g/kg
PropanilPropanil 360 g/L (600g/L)
Sencor 480Metribuzin 480g/L
Simazine Flowable 500Simazine 500g/L
Simazine Granules 900Simazine 900g/kg
Terbacil 800Terbacil 800g/kg
TerbuthylazineTerbuthylazine 750 g/kg (or800g/kg)
Terbutryn 500Terbutryn 500g/L
ToughPyridate 450g/L
TribunilMethabenzthiazuron 700g/kg
VelparHexazinone 750g/kg

6 GENERAL DESCRIPTION:

A selective, post-emergent, contact herbicide used mainly for broad-leaved weed control in onions.

7 APPLICATION METHODS AND TIPS:

Use a pre emergent herbicide to suppress weeds so they are not too big by the time onions are most tolerant.

8 WEATHER:

Rainfast in 3 hours.

Frost effects: Frosts result in poorer control.

Wind:

Inversions: Avoid application during low level inversions as excessive drift may occur.

Temperature: More active in high temperatures.

Delta T and relative humidity: Avoid application when Delta T is greater than

9 ADJUVANTS:

Wetting agents:

Spray oils:

10 WATER QUALITY:

Hard water:

Salty water:

Colloids:

pH:

Tank life:

11 COMPATIBILITY:

Trace elements.

See HerbiGuide Compatibilities button.

12 EQUIPMENT:

Boom sprays:

Carrier volume: 440 L/ha recommended on label. Lower rates are down to 80 L/ha are adequate providing droplet sizes are reduced to maintain adequate coverage.

Nozzles: Flat fan.

Pressure: 200-280 kPa recommended on label. 150-400 kPa usually adequate for flat fan nozzles.

13 SPRAYER DECONTAMINATION:

Clean Up:

Clean soon after spraying to reduce the risk of forming dried deposits that may be difficult to remove. Mechanically removed any caked deposits.

Remove filters and clean separately. Rinse with alkali detergent (eg 500 mL or g of Drive, Dynamo, Omo or Surf per 100 L water) and run through boom. Rinse with water.

Decontamination:

Remove filters and clean then soak in 500 mL household ammonia in 10 L water for 30 minutes.

Rinse sprayer with alkali detergent (eg 500 mL or g of Drive, Dynamo, Omo or Surf per 100 L water) and run through boom. Add 1 L of household ammonia (3% active ingredient) per 100 L water while filling the tank. Circulate through the system and spray a small quantity through the boom then allow to stand for several hours or overnight. Rinse with alkali detergent then rinse with water. Or use a commercial spray tank and equipment cleaner.

Rinse nozzles and filters in water and replace.

14 HERBICIDE RESISTANCE:

Tolerant plants are expected to occur and may dominate the weed population after repeated applications.

15 REPLANTING INTERVALS:

CropTime
AllNone required.

16 WITHHOLDING PERIODS:

CropTypeTime
AllGrazingNot required when used as directed.
AllHarvestNot required when used as directed.

17 RE-ENTRY PERIOD:

Wear protective clothing if in contact with the crop before the spray has dried.

18 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:

Overalls, boots and washable hat. Use gloves and face shield when handling the concentrate.

19 SOIL:

Soil texture: No significant effect.

Soil pH: No significant effect.

Soil organic matter: No significant effect.

Soil moisture at application: Best results when soil is moist. Reduced weed kill when plants are stressed from very wet or dry soils.

20 MODE OF ACTION:

Uptake and translocation:

Contact. Poorly translocated.

Physiological effects:

Residual Life and Breakdown:

No useful residual for weed control at normal rates. Disappears from soils with a half life of about 10 days.

21 SELECTIVITY:

Crop tolerance:

Varietal sensitivities:

Effect on Clover Species:

Damages clovers.

Effect on Medic Species:

Kills medics.

Effect on Lucerne:

Kills seedling lucerne. Damages established lucerne.

Effect on Native Plants:

Damages broad-leaved native seedlings. Little long term effect on established natives.

22 DISEASE AND INSECT EFFECTS:

Crops damaged by disease or insect attack are less tolerant to the herbicide.

23 PLANT SYMPTOMS:

SECONDARY EFFECTS:

24 TOXICITY:

Summary:

Toxic to mammals, Very toxic to aquatic organisms.

Details:

Poison schedule: S6.

Mammalian toxicity: Toxic.

Acute oral LD50: 602 mg/kg (rat), [For comparison table salt is 3000 mg/kg]

Acute dermal LD50: >2000 mg/kg (rat).

Skin: Slightly irritating (rabbit). Sensitising (guinea pig).

Frequent or prolonged contact with the hydrocarbon solvent in this product may defat and dry the skin, leading to discomfort and dermatitis.

Eye: Irritating (rabbit).

Vapour inhalation: LC50 > 3 mg/L air (Technical ioxynil, 6 hour, rat).

Chronic oral toxicity: NOEL mg/kg for two years.

Ioxynil was not carcinogenic or mutagenic in animal studies (i.e. does not cause cancer in animal tests).

Ioxynil octanoate is classified as a category 3 teratogen: - substances which cause concern for man owing to possible teratogenic effects but in respect of which the information is not adequate for making a satisfactory assessment.

This product contains naphthalene. The International Agency for Research on Cancer evaluated naphthalene and concluded that there was sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in experimental animals, but inadequate evidence for cancer in exposed humans. Accordingly, IARC classified naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B).

Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI):

Other Species:

Birds: Low toxicity. LD50 for Japanese quail 677 mg/kg (Ioxynil octanoate). LD50 for pheasants 1000 mg/kg (Ioxynil octanoate). LD50 for mallard duck 1200 mg/kg (Ioxynil octanoate).

Fish: Highly toxic. LC50 = 0.024 mg/L (Ioxynil octanoate , 96 hour, bluegill sunfish).

LC50 = 0.043 mg/L (96 hour, rainbow trout). LC50 = 4 mg/L (48 hour, harlequin fish).

Invertebrates: Highly toxic. EC50 = 0.011 mg/L (Ioxynil octanoate, 48 hour, Daphnia spp.)

Bees: toxicity.

Arthropods: toxicity.

Earthworms:

Algae: EC50 = 0.24 mg/L (Ioxynil octanoate, 72hour, Navicula pelliculosa)

Accumulation:

25 TOXICITY SYMPTOMS:

Local: Irritation of skin, eyes and mucous membranes; sensitisation.

Systemic: Nausea, vomiting, sweating, salivation, hyperthermia, convulsions.

Inhalation of product vapour may be irritating to respiratory tract, may cause headaches, drowsiness and dizziness, could be anaesthetic, and may have other central nervous system effects.

Skin contact: May irritate the skin. May cause skin sensitisation reactions. Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking.

Eye contact: May irritate the eyes.

Ingestion: Poisonous if swallowed. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, sweating, salivation, hyperthermia, convulsions. Small amounts of liquid aspirated into the respiratory system during ingestion or from vomiting may cause bronchopneumonia or pulmonary oedema.

26 FIRST AID:

If SWALLOWED: Wash out mouth with water. Do NOT induce vomiting. Give a glass of water to sip. Keep patient at rest and seek medical attention immediately. Do NOT give anything by mouth to a semiconscious or unconscious patient.

If in EYES: Hold eyelids open and wash eyes with plenty of water for 5 minutes, remove contact lenses if present and wash for a further 10 minutes. See a doctor if symptoms persist.

If on SKIN: Rinse with plenty of water, remove contaminated clothing, wash with soap and water. See a doctor if symptoms persist.

If INHALED: Remove patient to fresh air. See a doctor if symptoms persist. If breathing stops or shows signs of failing, start artificial respiration and call for prompt medical attention.

Advice to doctor:

Treatment:

Local: Initial treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.

Systemic: If a large amount (more than one mouthful) was ingested, the following measures should be considered: -

Monitor respiratory function and cardiac function and observe body temperature.

Keep airway clear; administer artificial respiration if necessary.

Carry out gastric lavage and charcoal administration. As this product contains a hydrocarbon solvent, care should be taken to prevent pulmonary aspiration.

Give anticonvulsant therapy, as appropriate, using diazepam 5-10 mg i.v. for adults; 2.5 mg i.v. for children, repeated as necessary until fully sedated.

There is no specific antidote.

Antipyretics, e.g. Aspirin, are contraindicated and could even increase hyperthermia.

It is essential to cool the person down and maintain complete rest and quiet.

Ioxynil is a phosphorylation uncoupler.

Contact the Poisons Information Centre on 131126.

27 ENVIRONMENTAL FATE:

Half life in soil: In soil (Dissipation time) DT50 is approximately 10 days. It is degraded by hydrolysis and de-iodination to less toxic substances such as hydroxybenzoic acid.

Half life in water: days at pH5 and 35 C.

It has an EPA classification for soil mobility that ranges from

It has low mobility; the majority of ioxynil and its metabolites remained in the top 8 cm of all soil types studied.

Ground water contamination

Accumulation in milk and tissues.

pH stability:

Photolysis rate:

Hydrolysis half life:

Biodegradation rate:

Bioconcentration factor (BCF) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): 209 (combination of ioxynil phenol and ioxynil octanoate)

28 REGISTERED CROPS:

See HerbiGuide Species Solution tab.

29 REGISTERED WEEDS:

See HerbiGuide Species Solution tab.

30 REGULATION AND LEGAL:

UN number: 3082

CAS numbers: Ioxynil octanoate 3861-47-0. Hydrocarbon solvent 64742-94-5. Naphthalene (in hydrocarbon solvent) 91-20-3.

OPP Chemical Code:

Hazchem code: 3Z.

NOHSC classification:

Land transport:

Dangerous goods class (ADG):

Sea transport:

Proper shipping name: ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE,

LIQUID, N.O.S. (contains ioxynil octanoate), UN 3082, Packing Group III, Marine Pollutant.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG):

Class: 9.

Packaging group: III.

EPG:

Risk phrases:

R22 - Harmful if swallowed

R36 - Irritating to eyes

R43 - May cause sensitisation by skin contact

R63 - Possible risk of harm to the unborn child

R65 - Harmful: May cause lung damage if swallowed

Safety phrases:

31 PROPERTIES:

Colour: Clear brown liquid.

Odour: Aromatic hydrocarbon.

Form: Liquid.

Chemical name: Ioxynil octanoate.

Empirical formula:

IUPAC

CAS: 3861-47-0.

Water solubility: Product emulsifies in water. mg/L at 25 C at pH ;

Oil solubility:

Octanol:Water ratio: LogPow = 6.0 (Ioxynil octanoate).

Soil organic carbon absorption coefficient (Koc):

Vapour Pressure: 0.3 kPa (at 380C) (hydrocarbon solvent). Previously quoted as 13 hPa (1.3 kPa) at 37.80C.

Vapour density: >1.00 (hydrocarbon solvent).

Dissociation constant: pKa

Melting point: C.

Boiling point: 179 - 2130C (boiling point range of solvent).

Molecular weight:

Bulk density:

Specific gravity: 1.074 at 200C

Viscosity: CPS.

pH:

Flammability: Combustible liquid. Class C1.

Flashpoint: Between 610C and 1500C. 660C (closed cup)

LEL: 0.6; UEL: 7.0 Vol. % in air (hydrocarbon solvent)

Autoignition: > 4000C (hydrocarbon solvent)

Corrosivity:

Shelf Life: years.

(When Stored under Ideal Conditions)

Stability: Stable under normal conditions of use.

Avoid sources of ignition and extreme heat.

Ioxynil octanoate is readily hydrolysed by alkalies. Avoid strong oxidising and reducing agents.

32 SPILLS:

Extinguish possible sources of ignition.

Absorb spill with earth, sand, clay or absorbent material such as vermiculite.

Ventilate area after cleanup.

Dispose in a lime pit.

33 FIRE:

Extinguish with water spray, foam, carbon dioxide or dry agent.

Toxic fumes may be released in fire. Wear breathing apparatus or avoid smoke.

Class C1 Combustible liquid.

34 COMMENTS:

35 REFERENCES:

Ashton, F.M. and Crafts, A.S. (1981) Mode of Action of Herbicides. (Wiley-Interscience publication).

Kearney, P.C. and Kaufman, D.D. (1976). Herbicides. Chemistry, degradation and mode of action. Vol 1 & 2.

Aventis CropScience (2001) Totril MSDS.

Bayer CropScience (2002). Totril label.

Bayer CropScience (2007). Totril MSDS.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. For more information see www.herbiguide.com.au or phone 08 98444064.