Jasmine

Jasminum polyanthum, Jasminum dallachii, Jasminum dichotomum, Jasminum fluminense.

Synonyms -

Family: Oleaceae

Names:

Jasminum is a Latinization of the Perso-Arabic yasamin for Jasmine.
Polyanthum is Latin meaning many flowered.

Other Names:

Jasmine - Jasminum polyanthum
Brazilian Jasmine - Jasminum dichotomum.
Gold Coast Jasmine - Jasminum fluminense.

Summary:

A rampant, woody, climbing vine with fragrant, white 4-10 petal flowers that produce black, small round, fleshy berries. Brazilian Jasmine has opposite, leathery, compound leaves with 3 leaflets and Gold Coast Jasmine has opposite, leathery, single, glossy leaves.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two.

First leaves:

Leaves:

Opposite composed of usually 7, stalked, spear to egg shaped leaflets.
Stipules -
Petiole - Stem clasping and shorter than the blade, 3-30 mm long. Appears hairless but may have very short hairs. Grooved on the upper side and becoming round at the base. 4-27 mm long x 1-1.5 mm diameter.
Petiolules of the leaflets - Shorter than the leaflet blades. Grooved, appear hairless but with tiny hairs, grooved on top and about 1 mm diameter. Those on side leaflets 2-10 mm long and those on terminal leaflet 4-25 mm long.
Blade - Of leaflet. Spear to egg shaped. Terminal leaflet up to 70 mm long x 25 mm wide. Side leaflets smaller. Tip pointed. Sides convex and smooth. Base squarish to tapered and often offset. Surface smooth, shiny, somewhat undulating, green on top, duller underneath and appears hairless but usually sparsely hairy near the tip.

Stems:

Round, wiry, slender and very long, many metres. Surface with short hairs when young and becoming hairless with age.
Roots at the nodes.
Bark of young growth green and smooth becoming streaked with grey.
Bark of older stems and trunk grey with brown lengthwise fissures.

Flower head:

Showy clusters (panicles) of 1-10 or more flowers at the ends of branches and in leaf axils.

Flowers:

Fragrant, white, 4-10 petal, tubular flowers with a green style sticking out of the tube.
Ovary -
Style - Projects from the petals. Ends in an oval head.
Sepals -
Petals - White, often pink in the bud. Tubular with 4-10 long spreading lobes.
Stamens -
Anthers - 2. Yellow. Attached about half way down the tube.

Fruit:

2 lobed, glossy black berries, 5-8 mm diameter. Rarely formed.

Seeds:

Roots:

Roots form at the stem nodes.

Key Characters:

Climbing vine.
Compound leaves.
Fragrant white flowers.
Black, 5-8 mm diameter berries.

Biology:

Life cycle:

Evergreen. Grows throughout the year with greatest growth in the warm wet months.

Physiology:

Intolerant of frost.

Reproduction:

Mainly by stems taking root a t the nodes. Occasionally seed is formed.

Flowering times:

All year in WA.
All year in NZ.

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

Stems root at the nodes.

Hybrids:

Many species and varieties grown as ornamentals.

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Most spread is by garden refuse disposal or intentional planting. Once in a new area its spreads vegetatively by clambering over vegetation and forming roots and new plants where the stems touch the ground. Seed is spread by birds and seed eating mammals.

Origin and History:

Brazilian Jasmine - Jasminum dichotomum is native to tropical Africa but first described in Brazil.
Gold Coast Jasmine - Jasminum fluminense is native to Africa.

Distribution:

ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.

Yellow = Jasminum polyanthum. Blue = Jasminum dallachii. Red = Jasminum fluminense.
Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate

Soil:

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Ornamental with a pleasant fragrance especially in the evening.

Detrimental:

Weed of disturbed areas and disturbed bushland.
Jasminum polyanthum is an environmental weed of NZ
Invasive weed of the USA.
Invades undisturbed hardwood forests in the USA

Toxicity:

Symptoms:

Treatment:

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Jasmine tends to be controlled naturally by leaf eating caterpillars in WA.

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Seedlings may be manually removed.
Cut mature vines near the base and spray or paint the cut bases with 1 part Garlon® in 1 part water. Pulling vines from the trees is not necessary and usually causes damage to the supporting vegetation.
Annual follow up treatments are usually required to prevent re infestation.

Herbicide resistance:

Biological Control:

Related plants:

Native Jasmine (Jasminum lineare)
The following have escaped in the USA but are not as aggressive or troublesome as Brazilian and Gold Coast Jasmine.
Poet's Jasmine Jasminum officinale has escaped in the USA.
Shining Jasmine Jasminum nitidum has escaped in the USA.
Star Jasmine Jasminum multiflorum has escaped in the USA.
Yellow Jasmine Jasminum mesnyi has escaped in the USA.
Privet and Olives are in the same family.

Plants of similar appearance:

Dolichos Pea, Hardenbergia, Honeysuckle, Ivy, Morning Glory, Periwinkle (Vinca), Wandering Jew.

References:

Bodkin, F. (1986). Encyclopaedia Botanica. (Angus and Robertson, Australia).

Everist, S.L. (1974). Poisonous Plants of Australia. (Angus and Robertson, Sydney).

Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).

Randall, J.M. and Marinelli, J. (1996) Invasive Plants. (Brooklyn Botanic Gardens Inc. Brooklyn). P193. Photo.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.