Loganberry

Rubus loganobaccus L. Bailey

Synonyms - Rubus x loganobaccus.
Rubus ursinus misapplied in NSW and WA.

Order: Rosales

Family: Rosaceae

Names:

Rubus is from the Latin ruber meaning red and refers to the red immature berries.
Loganobaccus commemorates its breeder Judge James H. Logan (1841-1928), a Californian horticulturist and baccus was the Roman name for Dionysus, the Greek god of wine and used because a wine was made from the fruit or the juice was mixed with wine.
Loganberry is a shortening of the species name and reference to the fruit.

Other Names:

Boysenberry

Summary:

A prickly, semi deciduous bush with sweet berries.

Description:

See the Weedy Blackberry and Rose key.

Cotyledons:

Two.

Leaves:

Compound. Leaflets 3, 5 or 7, arranged pinnately, but the lowest pair often pedate, lateral petiolules 0-3(10) mm long, terminal petiolule 5-20 mm long; basal leaflet pair sometimes lobed.
Stipules -
Petiole - 30-85 mm long.
Blade - of terminal leaflet 55-80 mm long, 35-65 mm wide, broadly egg shaped to broadly elliptic, base rounded to notched (subcordate), margin sharply double toothed (biserrate), apex pointed (acute to acuminate), lower surface green, with sparing pilose hairs, these mostly on veins, lamina visible.

Stems:

Primocanes spreading, not arching, rounded or scarcely angled; indumentum lacking or of sparse non-glandular pilose hairs; white waxy covering rarely present with age; prickles (1)3-6 mm long, straight, patent or declined, not confined to the angles, (40)80-150 per 50 mm length.

Flower head:

Inflorescence a series of short, 150-450 mm long stems from the leaf axils of the primocane, each terminating in a sub-corymbose raceme of 6-12 flowers, the first-formed flowers usually solitary in the axils of a 3 leaflet leaf; basal floral leaves of 3 or 5 leaflets, with petiole (20)30-62 mm long, lateral petiolules 0-2 mm long, terminal petiolule 4-30 mm long, terminal leaflet 40-105 mm long, 25-105 mm wide. Mature pedicels 20-40 mm long; rachis indumentum of non glandular pilose hairs.

Flowers:

Ovary -
Styles - white, aging pink.
Sepals - rarely armed, densely non glandular pubescent, usually not reflexed and enclosing base of fruit, apex apiculate.
Petals - (12)14-18 mm long x 7-9 mm wide, elliptic, white, not touching, not crumpled, not cupped, apex rounded.
Stamens - shorter than styles; filaments white; anthers without pilose hairs.
Anthers -

Fruit:

Berry. Young carpels pubescent. Fruit ripening dark red to black, not separating from the receptacle, not hollow.

Seeds:

Roots:

Taproot.

Key Characters:

Upper and lower leaf surfaces not differing markedly in colour.
Primocane rounded or obscurely angled.
Floricanes short stems from successive leaf axils, terminating in 6-12 flowered raceme.
Floral rachis densely pubescent with erect non-glandular hairs.
Pedicel more than 20 mm long.
Petals white.
Fruit oblong.
Adapted from Robyn and Bill Barker.

Biology:

Life cycle:

Perennial.

Physiology:

Reproduction:

By seed and cuttings.

Flowering times:

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

Stem cuttings.

Hybrids:

Loganberry is a hybrid cross between Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and California Dewberry (Rubus ursinus).
A number of varieties exist including one that is thornless.

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Mainly spread by intentional planting. Grows from cuttings and stem fragments.

Origin and History:

California. North America.
Produced from a cross between Raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and California Dewberry (Rubus ursinus) in 1881 in the garden of Judge James H. Logan (1841-1928), a Californian horticulturist.
The cross represents an intergeneric hybrid since R. idaeus belongs to subgenus Idaeobatus and R. ursinus to subgenus Rubus.

Distribution:

NSW, SA, Tas, Vic, WA.
It has naturalised in south-western Western Australia; Eyre Peninsula, the mid-North region and from Fleurieu Peninsula in South Australia; the Canberra region in New South Wales; the Ballarat region of Victoria and from south-eastern Tasmania.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate. Mediterranean.

Soil:

Grows on wide range of soils.

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Edible berries used for fresh fruit, conserves and pies. Fruit can be pulped, frozen or canned in sugar or syrup. A wine is made from the fruit or the juice is mixed with white or red wine.

Detrimental:

Weed of disturbed areas.

Toxicity:

Not recorded as toxic.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Goats provide a method of non-chemical control. Infested areas are grazed with 7.5 goats per ha in the first year, then 1.25 goats per ha in subsequent years.
Slashing alone is generally ineffective.
Multiple cultivations provide control but may lead to erosion and soil structure problems.
Scalping to 30 cm and root raking can be effective but may require a follow up with other control measures to control re-shooting root and stem fragments and seedlings. Rehabilitation of the site is often required to prevent reinfestation.
Mechanical removal, or slashing and burning followed by cultivation, can provide control if repeated regularly and then followed by planting of a competitive, preferably perennial, pasture species that is grazed.
Seedlings rarely establish in dense pasture or undisturbed native vegetation.
Improving pasture management usually prevents reinfestation.
Control with herbicides is usually the most cost effective. Metsulfuron (Brush Off®) and triclopyr (Garlon®) or triclopyr plus picloram (Grazon®) have provided the best results. Glyphosate can be used in home gardens or other sensitive areas. Apply herbicides when the plant is actively growing and has good leaf area.
Basal bark applications using Access® plus diesel can be used where canes are removed mechanically.
Dead stems may be burnt or slashed in the following season to allow access and rehabilitation of the site.
Fire provides little control alone but assists access for herbicide application or other controls.
In Pine plantations hexazinone can be used.
Follow up treatments are essential for high levels of control.
Low volume spraying is usually effective providing the amount of active ingredient applied per bush is kept constant.
For high volume spraying use 1 litre of mix for each 2.5 cubic metres of bush (or 2.5 square metres of low lying bush). This is equivalent to about 4000 L/ha of spray mix being applied.
In large infestations, consider using the cheaper metsulfuron for a year or two to reduce the size of the infestation then follow up with the more effective and costly triclopyr + picloram herbicides.

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Mechanical control is difficult and most of the root system must be removed for effective control.
3 annual, summer applications of 1 L of Grazon® plus 250 mL of Pulse® Penetrant in 100 L of water generally gives very high levels of control. Replant native species after control has been achieved or establish a competitive, and preferably perennial, pasture species then graze to prevent seedlings establishing.
On large infestations, 10 g metsulfuron(600g/kg) plus 250 mL Pulse® Penetrant in 100 L water, applied in summer when the plant is actively growing, provides a cheaper option to reduce the size of the infestation before Grazon® is used.

Herbicide resistance:

None reported.

Biological Control:

Related plants:

There are no native Rubus species in WA.
Blackberry (Rubus anglocandicans = Rubus discolor = Rubus procerus, Rubus fruticosus, Rubus ulmifolius)
Blackberry (Rubus anglocandicans) is the main weedy variety in WA. Its main flowering is in December to January and it has white flowers (though it may be pinkish in the bud). The leaves tend to be whitish on the lower surface.
Boysenberry is a cross between a Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), an American Dewberry (Rubus aboriginum) and a Loganberry (Rubus × loganobaccus). It has narrow straight thorns.
California Dewberry (Rubus ursinus) is not naturalised in Australia.
Cutleaf Blackberry (Rubus laciniatus ssp. laciniatus) has cut leaf - see diagram.
Dewberry (Rubus roribaccus) is in NSW and Victoria.
Elmleaf Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) has pinkish petals and smaller leaves than R. anglocandicans. Some varieties are thornless.
Keriberry (Rubus rugosus) has leaves that are green on top and whitish underneath and roundish canes covered in brown hairs.
Kittatinny Blackberry (Rubus bellobatus)
Loganberry (Rubus loganobaccus, Rubus x loganobaccus) has narrow straight thorns and usually flowers later than blackberry.
Mountain Raspberry (Rubus gunnianus)
Native Raspberry (Rubus hillii = Rubus moluccanus var. trilobus A.R.Bean) is a native of the east coast of Australia and has simple palmately lobed leaves
that tend to be green on the upper an lower surfaces. The flowers are white with no pink tinges there are glandular hairs on the canes that look like red dots under a hand lens.
Plains or Bundy (American) Blackberry (Rubus laudatus) flowers in September to November with fruit in December - somewhat earlier than Raspberry (Rubus idaeus)
Rose-leaved Bramble (Rubus rosifolius) is a native plant of the east coast of Australia.
Thimbleberry (Rubus parvifolius, Rubus rosifolius) is a native plant of the east coast of Australia and Tasmania. It has almost stalkless leaflets with the upper side being green and the underside almost white. The flowers are pink to red flowers on 2-3 cm stalks.
Wineberry (Rubus phoenicolasius)
Yellow Raspberry (Rubus ellipticus)
Rubus alceifolius
Rubus chloocladus
Rubus cissburiensis
Rubus discolor = Rubus procerus is not in Australia but the older literature refers to R. anglocandicans as R. discolor in Western Australia and R. procerus in the eastern states.
Rubus koehleri
Rubus leightonii
Rubus odoratus is similar to Thimbleberry and occurs in SA and Tasmania.
Rubus polyanthemus
Rubus pyramidalis
Rubus radula
Rubus rosaceus
Rubus selmeri = R. laciniatus
Rubus vestitus

Apple (Pirus malus), Pear (Pirus communis), Quince (Cydonia vulgaris), Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), Plum (Prunus domestica), Apricot (Prunus armeniaca), Almond (Prunus amygdalus), Peach (Prunus persica) and Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) are all in the same family as Raspberry.

Plants of similar appearance:

See the Weedy Blackberry and Rose key.
Climbing Roses.

References:

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #1070.10.

Reid, R.L. (1990) The Manual of Australian Agriculture. (Butterworths, Sydney). P172-173.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.