Other Names:Cluster Pine
Summary:Pines are tall evergreen trees to 40 m high with rough and ridged brown bark and spirally arranged branches. The leaves are needle-like, in pairs, 50-300 mm long, arising from the axils of basal scale leaves, the needle-like leaves and scale leaves falling together as a unit. The young shoots are yellowish brown. The inflorescence is of separate male and female cones, both on the same tree. The male cones are small and spike-like with numerous tiny bracts each having 2 pollen sacs. The female cones are larger with numerous larger bracts each with 2 ovules. The fruiting cones are large and woody, more or less egg shaped and 70-250 mm long, they take 1-2 years to mature and eventually open to release the small winged seeds. Male cones are on the side and female cones on the ends of shoots.
Leaves:Long shoots with scale like leaves and short shoots arising from the axils of basal scale leaves and bearing paired, needle like leaves that are spirally arranged. The needle-like leaves and scale leaves fall together as a unit at maturity. The young shoots yellowish brown, spindle shaped and pointed.
Stems:Reddish brown, up to 40 metres tall, resinous. Bark rough and becoming deeply ridged. Young shoots yellow brown.
Flower head:On each tree there are both male and female cones with spirally arranged scales. Cone scales have a rounded conical projection and a tiny prickle on the back. The male cones are small and spike-like with numerous tiny bracts each having 2 pollen sacs (sporangia) on the lower surface. The female cones are larger with numerous larger bracts each with 2 ovules. They are egg shaped to conic, stalkless on the ends, in groups of 1-3 and occasionally many, light brown, 70-250 mm long x 50-80 mm diameter, symmetrical except at the base, shiny, persistent and becoming woody with age and eventually opening to release the seed. Male cones replace short shoots at the base of the new years growth. Female cones replace long shoots and take 1-2 years to mature and eventually open to release the small winged seeds. Male cones are on the side and female cones on the ends of shoots. Cone scales produce 2 seeds on the upper surface.
Flowers:There are separate male and female cones on the same plant.
Seeds:7-8 mm long with a wing up to 30 mm long.
Flowering times:Pollen shed in September to October in WA.
Seed Biology and Germination:Vegetative Propagules:
Hybrids:Population Dynamics and Dispersal:
Origin and History:Native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean.
Distribution:ACT, NSW, SA, VIC, WA.
Detrimental:Weed of plantations, roadsides and disturbed areas.
Toxicity:Not recorded as toxic.
Management and Control:Maritime pine is included in the 5 most invasive Pinus species and volunteers around plantations may require control.
Plants of similar appearance:Possibly confused with Callitris (Rottnest Island Pine), but Callitris is a smaller tree to 6 m high, its leaves only obvious in young shoots as they become fused to the stem with age leaving only small scale-like tips free. The cones are also smaller, 25-35 mm long and globular.
References:Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia). P68.