(L.) Wilczek and Vigna radiata Vigna mungo (L.) Pepper Order - Fabales Family - Fabaceae Names: Vigna honours Domenico Vigna the Professor of botany at Pisa ( - 1647).
Black Gram or Urd
Other Names: Vigna mungo. Green Gram Vigna radiata.
A small, annual, summer growing, leguminous, climbing vine with yellow flowers.
A hairy, climbing or sprawling vine with trifoliate leaves and yellow pea type flowers in autumn.
Description: Vigna radiata tends to be more vigorous, with longer stem and has pods throughout the plant. Vigna mungo tends to be more upright and compact and tends to have pods on the uppermost nodes.
Three leaflets on a stalk with 2 large leaf like stipules at the base.
Leaves: Stipules - Large Petiole - Yes. Blade - Hairy.
Weak, trailing, climbing.
Flowers arise from the leaf axils.
Yellow pea type.
Flowers: Ovary - Sepals - Petals - Stamens - Anthers - Fruit: Seeds: 22 per gram.
Have nitrogen fixing nodules.
Roots: Key Characters: Biology: Life cycle: Annual or perennial leguminous crop.
Drought and high temperature tolerant
Physiology: Sensitive to frost and waterlogging. Pods susceptible to pre harvest weather damage. Growth is very sensitive to temperature. Development depends on day length and temperature. Fixes nitrogen. Usually nodulates with native Rhizobia but commercial crops are usually inoculated.
March in WA.
Seeds germinate rapidly but seedlings are weak if planted more than 50 mm deep.
Seed Biology and Germination: Vegetative Propagules: Hybrids: Several commercial cultivars exist. Allelopathy: Population Dynamics and Dispersal: Origin and History: Eastern and southern Asia. India.
ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, WA.
Distribution: Habitats: Climate: Tropical. Sub tropics. Warm temperate.
Prefers deep soils with good moisture storage.
Often sown with Millet of Sorghum.
Plant Associations: Significance: Beneficial: Cultivated food and fodder crop. Fixes nitrogen. Used for bean sprouts and a split seed preparation called dahl. Used as a green manure crop.
Weed of disturbed areas.
Not recorded as toxic.
Fast grower and strong competitor.
Management and Control: Thresholds: Eradication strategies: Herbicide resistance: Biological Control: Pests include sucking bugs, caterpillars and Bean Fly.
Related plants: Vigna angularis) Asparagus Bean ( Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis) Catjang ( Vigna unguiculata ssp. cylindrica) Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata) Creeping Vigna ( Vigna parkeri ssp. maranguensis) Dalrymple Vigna ( Vigna luteola) Dune Bean ( Vigna marina) Maloga Bean or Yam ( Vigna lanceolata) Moth Bean ( Vigna aconitifolia) Rice Bean ( Vigna umbellata) Urd ( Vigna mungo) Wild Cowpea ( Vigna vexillata var. youngiana) Plants of similar appearance: References: Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Cousens, R.D., Dodd, J. and Lloyd, S.G. (1997). Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. (Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia). P164. Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #1268.8. Reid, R.L. (1990) The Manual of Australian Agriculture. (Butterworths, Sydney). P103-104, 276.
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