Two types; Achenes for disc florets are conical, ribbed, 2-3 mm long. Achenes from ray florets are have a narrow border.
Dark brown, grey or black, 1-2 mm long, narrow and tapering at one end, ribbed. No pappus.
Extensive, creeping, woody rhizomes producing new aerial growth annually.
Simple or toothed leaves, not deeply lobed. White daisy type flowers with yellow centres.
Perennial. Seeds germinate in autumn, form a rosette of leaves and develop an extensive root system with creeping lateral roots a few centimetres underground in the first season. New aerial growth emerges from the roots each autumn and produces more vigorous rosettes and sends up flowering stems in late spring to summer. Seed is produced and the aerial growth dies off in late summer. Seed may remain dormant for 20 years. Seeds pass through animal alimentary tract without losing viability.
By seeds and creeping rhizomes.
September to December in SA.
Seed Biology and Germination:
Most seed is viable.
Some seed may lay dormant for 20 years.
Seed passes through stock without losing viability.
Population Dynamics and Dispersal:
The initial spread was due mainly to intentional planting in gardens and subsequent escape from these areas.
Seed is small and dispersed by mud, water, agricultural produce, animals and machinery.
It produces large quantities of seed.
Root fragments may be moved by cultivation or road making equipment and these readily establish in new areas.
Grows vigorously on burnt areas.
In suitable areas it grows so densely that it smothers all other vegetation.
Origin and History:
Europe, Siberia, parts of Asia.
Probably introduced as an ornamental plant.
First recorded in SA in 1858 and naturalised by 1907. Naturalised in Victoria by 1905.
NSW, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.
NSW, especially on the Northern Tablelands.
Victoria, in high rainfall areas (eg Gippsland, Otway ranges).
Tasmania, in high rainfall areas.
SA, in Mt Lofty Ranges)
WA, rarely or not naturalised.
Temperate regions with an annual rainfall greater than 750 mm.
Often more abundant on poor soils.
Used in herbal medicine for coughs and asthma.
Used as a Chamomile substitute.
Weed of roadsides, pastures, turf and disturbed areas.
Not readily grazed by stock.
If eaten may impart a disagreeable taste to milk.
Carries yellow dwarf virus of potatoes.
Not recorded as toxic but may taint milk.
Noxious weed on Victoria.
Management and Control:
Shallow cultivation likely to spread roots. Deeper cultivation to 200 mm is more effective especially in summer, subsequent shallow cultivation will kill seedlings and regrowth from root pieces, and should be followed by establishment of a suitable perennial pasture. Due to long seed dormancy, cropping with cultivation should continue for 2-3 years to reduce the seed bank. Chemical control can be used for areas not suited to cultivation. Picloram, dicamba and amitrole T are effective in early flowering stage.
Crop fro several years using cultivation and herbicides. Establish strongly competitive and preferably perennial pasture species.
Shasta Daisy (L. maximum)
Plants of similar appearance:
Auld, B.A. and Medd R.W. (1992). Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P107-108. Photo.
Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia). P878.
Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P156.
Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #743.2.
Parsons, W.T. and Cuthbertson, E.G. (1992). Noxious weeds of Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P290-291. Photos.
Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.