Rough Poppy

Papaver hybridum L.

Family: Papaveraceae.

Names:

Rough Poppy

Other names:

Wild poppy.

Summary:

A deeply, multiple lobed leaved annual poppy with 4 red petals that have a dark blotch near the base from September to November and golden bristly, egg shaped seed capsules.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two. Slender, lance shaped, 3-5 mm long, stalkless. Tip pointed. Hairless. The seedling has a very short hypocotyl and no epicotyl.

First Leaves:

Slender, 6-10 mm, stalkless and the first 2 leaves are usually without lobes. They grow singly. Later leaves become more lobed.

Leaves:

Forms a rosette. Alternate. They have an offensive odour and taste.
Petiole - Yes.
Blade - Lighter colour on underside, rough to touch, deeply lobed to the midrib and these lobes may have lobes or teeth also. Lobes and segments are narrow. Hairy.
Stem leaves - Similar to rosette leaves. 50-70 mm long. Stalked. Hairy, with very long hairs near base of leaf stalk. Near the top of the stem the leaves may have no lobes and no petiole. Lighter colour on underside.

Stems:

Erect, up to 500 mm, circular, many branched. Short, closely pressed hairs. Milky sap.

Flower head:

Single flowers on the ends of long stems (peduncles) with low lying hairs. Peduncles may arise from a leaf axil or the base of the plant.

Flowers:

Red to pink with dark blotches and a black centre. 40-50 mm wide.
Bracts -
Ovary - Rounded. No style.
Sepals - 2, concave, overlapping, fall off early.
Petals - 4, 10-25 mm long, red to pink, usually with a darker or purple blotch at the base. Obtuse tip. Fall off easily.
Stamens - Purple. Filaments thickened upwards.
Anthers - Many.

Fruit:

Egg shaped to oval capsule, 10-15 mm long. Upward curved, golden bristles. Small stigmatic disk on top with 6-8 broad rays. Seeds released through pores at the top of the capsule below the stigmatic disk.

Seeds:

Many, tiny, kidney shaped. The surface is hairless with a network pattern.

Roots:

Taproot.

Key Characters:

Capsule bristly. Filaments thickened towards the top.

Biology:

Life cycle:

Annual. Germinates from autumn to winter, grows through winter and spring and flowers in spring.

Physiology:

Produces alkaloids.

Reproduction:

By seed.

Flowering times:

Spring in western NSW.
September to November in SA.
Spring in WA.

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

None.

Hybrids:

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Spread by seed.
Dense infestations are more likely in wet years.

Origin and History:

Europe. North Africa. Western Asia.

Distribution:

ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.
Occurs in parts of the north west and south of Tasmania.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate.

Soil:

Plant Associations:

Occasionally in shrub and bladder saltbush communities.

Significance:

Beneficial:

Ornamental.

Detrimental:

Weed of crops, pastures, fallows, roadsides, gardens, open wood lands and disturbed areas.
Serious weed of Opium Poppy crops in Tasmania.
Unpalatable due to bad odour and taste.

Toxicity:

May be toxic when large amounts are present in hay.
Contains alkaloids.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Herbicide resistance:

Biological Control:

Related plants:

Bristle Poppy (Papaver aculeatum) has a smooth capsule.
Field Poppy (Papaver rhoeas) has a smooth capsule.
Long-headed Poppy (Papaver dubium) has a smooth capsule.
Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum ssp. somniferum) has a smooth capsule.
Pale Poppy (Papaver argemone) is has a longer, oblong capsule.
Small flowered Poppy (Papaver somniferum ssp. setigerum) has a smooth capsule.

Plants of similar appearance:

References:

Auld, B.A. and Medd R.W. (1992). Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P198. Photo.

Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia). P366. Diagram.

Burbidge, N.T. and Gray, M. (1970). Flora of the Australian Capital Territory. (Australian National University Press, Canberra). P177, 179. Diagram

Cunningham, G.M., Mulham, W.E., Milthorpe, P.L. and Leigh, J.H. (1992). Plants of Western New South Wales. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P314.

Everist, S.L. (1974). Poisonous Plants of Australia. (Angus and Robertson, Sydney). P566.

Gardner, G.A. and Bennetts, H.W. (1956). The toxic plants of Western Australia. (West Australian Newspapers Ltd, Perth). p???30.

Gilbey, D. (1989). Identification of weeds in cereal and legume crops. Bulletin 4107. (Western Australian Department of Agriculture , Perth). P46.

Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Cousens, R.D., Dodd, J. and Lloyd, S.G. (1997). Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. (Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia). P194. Photo.

Hyde-Wyatt, B.H. and Morris, D.I. (1975). Tasmanian weed handbook. (Tasmanian Department of Agriculture, Hobart, Tasmania). P100-101. Diagram.

Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #927.4.

Wilding, J.L. et al. (1987). Crop weeds. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P129. Diagrams. Photos.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.