Seed Gall Nematode of Wheat

Anguina tritici

Description:

Wrinkled, rolled or twisted leaves. Stems swell at ground level and plants are stunted and slow to mature. Grain is replaced by hard, black to brown seed galls and the affected heads are smaller and usually with more open glumes than normal.

Species Affected:

Wheat, Cereal Rye, Triticale.

Biology:

The leaf twisting is caused by Dilophospora fungus which is carried by the nematode into the plant.

Life Cycle:

The seed galls contain thousands of nematodes that survive for up to 2 years with the seed or in the soil. In moist conditions the nematodes are released and feed in water films on the leaves and sheaths until they reach the immature head within the stem. They then enter the immature florets, mate, reproduce rapidly and form seed galls.

Origin and History:

Distribution:

Rare.

Significance:

Management and Control:

Don't use seed from infected areas.
Avoid sowing Wheat, Cereal Rye or Triticale into infested paddocks for 2 years.
Grading and cleaning seed may help reduce the incidence of the nematode.

Related and Similar Species:

References:

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.HerbiGuide.com.au for more information.