Species Affected:Wheat, Cereal Rye, Triticale.
Biology:The leaf twisting is caused by Dilophospora fungus which is carried by the nematode into the plant.
Life Cycle:The seed galls contain thousands of nematodes that survive for up to 2 years with the seed or in the soil. In moist conditions the nematodes are released and feed in water films on the leaves and sheaths until they reach the immature head within the stem. They then enter the immature florets, mate, reproduce rapidly and form seed galls.
Origin and History:Distribution:
Significance:Management and Control:
Related and Similar Species:References: