Smallflower Fumitory

Fumaria parviflora Lam.

Family: Papaveraceae (was Fumariaceae)

Names:

Fumaria is from the Latin fumus terrae meaning smoke of the earth and may refer to the smoky odour of some species in this genus or the smoky colour of some species when in flower.
Smallflower Fumitory refers to its flowers that are smaller than most other Fumitory species.

Summary:

A soft, many stemmed and branched annual herb or vine with finely divided leaves and somewhat tubular white flowers with red to purple tips.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two. Long and narrow. Lance shaped. Hairless. Tip pointed.

First leaves:

Divided deeply, with lobed leaflets. Dull blue green.

Leaves:

Alternate
Stipules -
Petiole - Yes.
Blade - 2-3 times divided almost to the mid rib into narrow segments that are slightly channelled. Tip pointed. Surface hairless.
Stem leaves - Alternate, similar to lower leaves.

Stems:

Green to reddish or purplish brown. Semi erect to sprawling, weak, soft, 5 angled up to 250 mm tall. Many branched. Surface smooth and hairless.

Flower head:

Loose raceme.

Flowers:

Somewhat tubular and narrow. On short, conical stalks.
Bracts - Lance shaped bracts underneath the flower. The same length as the flower stalks.
Ovary - Thread like style with 2 stigmas.
Sepals - 2, tiny, 0.5-1 mm long, scale-like, flat, finely toothed.
Petals - 2 pairs, upper petal spurred or pouched. 3-4 mm long. White with green and purple tips. 2 pairs. Petals close together at their tips.
Stamens - 6. Opposite outer petals. Joined by their filaments into 2 bundles.
Anthers - 2 sets of 3. The middle one has 2 cells the outer ones have 1 cell.

Fruit:

Nut-like capsule on a short stalk.

Seeds:

Globular, 2 mm diameter. Wrinkled when ripe. 2 inconspicuous pits at the top.

Roots:

Key Characters:

Small white flowers with green or purple tips.

Biology:

Life cycle:

Annual. Flowers from September to November. Seeds germinate in autumn to winter.

Physiology:

Reproduction:

By seed.

Flowering times:

September to November in SA.

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

Hybrids:

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Origin and History:

Europe. Mediterranean.

Distribution:

NSW, QLD, SA, VIC.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate.

Soil:

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Detrimental:

Weed of fallows, cultivation, disturbed areas and gardens.

Toxicity:

Not recorded as toxic.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Herbicide resistance:

Biological Control:

Related plants:

Bastard's Fumitory (Fumaria bastardii)
Common Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis)
Denseflower Fumitory (Fumaria densiflora)
Indian Fumitory (Fumaria indica)
Wall Fumitory (Fumaria muralis)
Whiteflower Fumitory (Fumaria capreolata).

Plants of similar appearance:

Carrot weed has similar leaves but has yellow flowers.
Erodium and Storksbill have similar leaves but with hairs, the flowers are blue and they have corkscrew fruit.
Parsley Piert
Swinecress

References:

Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia). P368. Diagram.

Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #563.7.

Wilding, J.L. et al. (1987). Crop weeds. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P116. Diagrams. Photos.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.