Glycine max (L.) Merr.
Order - Fabales
Family - Fabaceae
An annual, summer growing leguminous crop grown for protein and oil rich grain.
Have nitrogen fixing nodules.
Annual herb. Seed is sown in November to January and the crop harvested in April to May.
Physiology:Fixes nitrogen but usually requires inoculation before sowing as the Soybean Rhizobium is not a natural inhabitant of Australian soils and is from a different group to other legumes.
Sensitive to moisture stress especially during flowering and pod development.
Seed contains 19-23% oil and 40-45% protein.
Australian cultivars flower more rapidly in short day conditions
Flowering times:Seed Biology and Germination:
Will germinate from up to 80 mm deep but grows more strongly when planted shallower.
Many commercial cultivars exist.
Allelopathy:Population Dynamics and Dispersal:
Spread mainly by intentional planting.
Origin and History:Derived from Asian species.
Distribution:NSW, NT, QLD, SA, VIC, WA.
In Australia it is mainly grown in the subtropics between 26-330S as an irrigated and dry land crop.
Soil:Grows in most soil types. Prefers pH of 6-6.5 and soils with good moisture storage characters.
High protein grain.
Food. Fodder. Oils used for margarine and edible, salad and cooking oils.
Meal of seed after oil extraction has 50% protein and used for pig and poultry feed.
Not recorded as toxic.
Management and Control:Initial growth is slow and it is a weak competitor with weeds.
Susceptible to Phytophthora stem rot.
Insect pests include sucking bugs, caterpillars and stem borers.
Related plants:Silky Glycine (Glycine canescens)
Twining Glycine (Glycine clandestina)
Clover Glycine (Glycine latrobeana)
Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)
Glycine Pea (Glycine tabacina)
Woolly Glycine (Glycine tomentella)
Plants of similar appearance:References:
Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #591.1.
Reid, R.L. (1990) The Manual of Australian Agriculture. (Butterworths, Sydney). P106-108.
Acknowledgments:Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.