This has the rates for Spray.Seed when used in direct drilling situations.
1 Trade name
4FARMERS BROWN OUT 250 HERBICIDE
4 FARMERS PTY LTD
SIPCAM PACIFIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
CHEMAG SPRAYKILL 250 HERBICIDE
IMTRADE AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
COMBIK 250 HERBICIDE
SINON AUSTRALIA PTY LIMITED
CONQUEST SCORCHER 250 HERBICIDE
CONQUEST AGROCHEMICALS PTY LTD
FARMOZ SPRAY & SOW HERBICIDE
FARMOZ PTY LIMITED
GENFARM DI-PAR 250 HERBICIDE
GENFARM CROP PROTECTION PTY LTD
GRAMOXONE GOLD HERBICIDE
SYNGENTA CROP PROTECTION PTY LIMITED
HALLEY PREMIER 250 HERBICIDE
HALLEY INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE (AUSTRALIA) PTY LTD
KENSO AGCARE SPEEDY 250 HERBICIDE
KENSO CORPORATION (M) SDN BHD
NUFARM REVOLVER HERBICIDE
NUFARM AUSTRALIA LIMITED
OSPRAY SPRAY-OUT 250 HERBICIDE
OSPRAY PTY LTD
RYGEL PRE-SEED 250 HERBICIDE
RYGEL AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
SPRAY.SEED 250 HERBICIDE
SYNGENTA CROP PROTECTION PTY LIMITED
SUMMIT SPRAY-PLANT 250 HERBICIDE
SIPCAM PACIFIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD
TITAN EOS HERBICIDE
TITAN AG PTY LTD
UNITED FARMERS WILDFIRE 250 HERBICIDE
UNITED FARMERS CO-OPERATIVE COMPANY LTD
3 ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: Diquat 115g/L + paraquat 135g/L
4 CHEMICAL GROUP: L
Bipyridyls. Inhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem I (PSI inhibitors).
5 RELATED HERBICIDES:
Diquat dibromide 200g/L
Diquat 115g/L + paraquat 135g/L
SpraySeed plus Cultivation
Diquat 115g/L + paraquat 135g/L
6 GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
Spray.Seed started the minimum tillage revolution
It is a broad spectrum, contact herbicide that desiccates plants. The major uses are for controlling small, annual weeds before planting crops, directed sprays in perennial crops and as a pre harvest desiccant for crops such as potatoes and canola. It has no soil activity because it is bound to clays in the soil very strongly. It presents little hazard to the environment because the strong binding to clays prevents the herbicide entering the soil solution to leach or affect organisms. Spray.Seed is toxic to animals and care should taken to avoid exposure. The greatest exposure risk is via inhalation of spray mist and consequently it is not registered for use in misters or for normal aerial application.
7 APPLICATION METHODS AND TIPS:
Protective clothing should be warn when using Spray.Seed. A respirator is recommended.
Spray.Seed is usually applied in water as a broadcast application through hydraulic nozzles or as a directed spray using hand held equipment.
Surfactants and oils often improve weed control but it is usually more economical to increase the rate of Spray.Seed.
Under stressed conditions plants become more tolerant to Spray.Seed.
Dust on the leaves of plants will deactivate Spray.Seed resulting in poor control.
Spraying in the evening, at night or on dull overcast days will improve the translocation of Spray.Seed and often improve weed control.
Conventional fan nozzles are better than air inducted or Turbo Drop nozzles for Spray.Seed application.
Efficiacy is better under high humidity or low delta T conditions.
Suggested procedure for crop establishment:
Graze stubble to break it up and reduce bulk.
Graze weeds from germination to prevent the formation of large root systems and provide hoof cultivation to encourage seeds to germinate. Avoid allowing weeds to grow then grazing off before spraying.
Remove stock 2-3 days before spraying and preferably wait for a rain to wash dust off leaves.
Spray with a boom spray.
Cultivate 1-7 days after spraying. In dense weed stands cultivation may be more effective after 3 days when roots have started to die.
Sow soon after cultivation.
Rainfast in 1 hour.
Frost effects: Frosts before spraying may reduce plant growth result in poorer weed control. Frosts more than an hour or two after spraying have little effect on herbicide activity. The effectiveness of night applications may be reduced by frosts before sunrise.
Inversions: Avoid spraying during inversion conditions.
Temperature: Low temperatures may reduce weed kill by 10-20%.
Delta T and relative humidity: Avoid application when Delta T is greater than
Soil moisture at application:
Wetting agents: Spray.Seed contains a non ionic wetter sufficient for spray volumes up to 100 L/ha. Add 200 mL non ionic wetting agent for each additional 100 L/ha of spray volume
Spray oils: Use oils if companion herbicides require them.
10 WATER QUALITY:
Salty water: Salt has little effect on efficacy.
Colloids: Colloids and clay will reduce the efficacy
pH: Little effect.
Tank life: Several weeks in clean water.
Saline Water - Nil if water is free from clay particles.
Soil Colloids - Can affect application but normally not a problem. As a rule of thumb - if a coin can be seen on the bottom of a 10 litre bucket full of water then little loss of activity is seen. Dirty water can be settled with alum or lime as described in the HerbiGuide Information/Water Quality section.
Spray.Seed is absorbed onto clay particles, reducing the amount available to control weeds.
Use water that is free from clay, silt and algae.
Non ionic surfactants and crop oils increase absorption of herbicide and often improve the degree of weed control.
Triazine herbicides are often synergistic with Spray.Seed. This may be due to the photosynthetic inhibiting properties of triazines resulting in better translocation of Spray.Seed from its point of contact. Spray.Seed is usually antagonistic with translocated herbicides. The fast action of Spray.Seed kills the tissue before other herbicides have moved. However, at low use rates and on plants that have some tolerance to Spray.Seed there are useful mixtures. In particular, metsulfuron(Ally) and dicamba are commonly used as a tank mix to improve the control of clover.
Not all formulations of diuron, simazine and atrazine are compatible with Spray.Seed.
Zinc sulphate and copper sulphate are antagonistic with Spray.Seed. This is caused by ionic reactions and results in a significant loss of efficacy. Manganese sulphate and calcium carbonate (lime) have lesser effects.
50 - 100 L/ha for small 2-5 leaf well separated plants up to 2 cm tall or wide.
100- 150 L/ha for 5 leaf to early tillering or rosette plants up to 5 cm tall or wide.
150 - 200 L/ha for dense or tall weeds swards up to 10 cm tall
For dense and or tall swards more than 10 cm tall use a split application at 150 L/ha.
Nozzles: Flat fan. 110 degrees. Double overlap.
Pressure: 150-400 kPa.
13 SPRAYER DECONTAMINATION:
Clean soon after spraying to reduce the risk of forming dried deposits that may be difficult to remove.
Remove filters and clean separately. Triple rinse with water or water plus 0.25% wetting agent and run through boom.
Remove filters and clean separately.
Rinse with water and drain.
Quarter fill the tank with an alkali detergent (eg 500 mL or g of Drive, Dynamo, Omo, or Surf per 100 L water) and circulate for at least 15 minutes then run through boom. Rinse twice with water.
Chlorine based cleaners are not recommended.
14 HERBICIDE RESISTANCE:
Plant populations tolerant to Spray.Seed are expected to occur naturally after repeated applications.
15 REPLANTING INTERVALS:
In heavy stubble situations wait a few days or for a rain before planting as transfer of Spray.Seed to emerging crop is possible.
16 WITHHOLDING PERIODS:
Grazing for horses
17 RE-ENTRY PERIOD:
Wear protective clothing if in contact with the crop before the spray has dried.
18 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:
Overalls, boots and washable hat. Use gloves and face shield when handling the concentrate.
Avoid contact with broken skin.
Avoid mist and use a mist mask if exposed while spraying.
Soil texture: No effect.
Soil pH: No effect.
Soil organic matter: No effect.
20 MODE OF ACTION:
Spray.Seed is absorbed by the leaves of plants. It is not translocated at high light intensities because the leaf tissue is killed very quickly. Under low light or dark conditions Spray.Seed acts more slowly and may move some distance from the point of application. It forms a stable free radical which interferes with the electron transport process. The reduction of carbon dioxide in the photosynthetic pathway is inhibited. This results in the production of superoxide radicals which attack unsaturated fatty acids. This causes degradation of cell membranes and loss of water resulting in desiccation of the plant.
It is a group L herbicide categorised as inhibitors of photosynthesis at photosystem 1.
20 MODE OF ACTION:
Uptake and translocation:
Contact herbicide. Little translocation. There may be some passive movement with night applications.
Residual Life and Breakdown:
No residual activity in soil. Binds strongly to clays.
Burns most plants off but large plants and perennials may recover.
Effect on Clover Species:
High rates kill clover. Low rates are tolerated.
Effect on Medic Species:
High rates kill clover. Low rates are tolerated.
Effect on Lucerne:
Burn top growth and may kill seedlings. Established plants generally survived especially if they have been grazed heavily or cut before spraying.
Effect on Native Plants:
Burns off top growth but most established perennial natives will survive. Hogh rates kill most seedlings.
22 DISEASE AND INSECT EFFECTS:
No particular effects.
23 PLANT SYMPTOMS:
Spray.Seed is rapidly absorbed and stops plant growth quickly. The plants begin to wilt within hours of application. They usually turn brown within a day or two and die. Plants exposed to Spray.Seed drift often show spots of dead tissue where individual droplets of spray have contacted the leaf. Perennial species or annual species with large root reserves may loose all the leaves that have been sprayed but regrow new ones to survive.
ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) for humans (paraquat ion) is 0.004 mg/kg/day and for (diquat ion) is 0.002 mg/kg/day.
Birds - High toxicity. Avoid contaminating drinking water. The oral LD50 (Paraquat, hens) = 262 - 380 mg/kg for paraquat and 200 - 400 mg/kg for diquat
Fish - Moderate toxicity. Fish and other aquatic species may be killed by deoxygenation of the water due to the break down of plant material killed by Spray.Seed. LC50 (96 hour, rainbow trout) = 55 mg/L (static) for paraquat and 21 mg/L for diquat. LC50 (96 hour, brown trout) = 2.5 - 13 mg/L for paraquat. LC50 (96 hour, mirror carp) = 67 mg/L for diquat.
Algae - ErC50 (72 hours, green algae) = 0.34 mg/L.
Invertebrates - moderate toxicity.
Bees - low toxicity.
25 TOXICITY SYMPTOMS:
Small amounts of Spray.Seed due to occupational exposure are rapidly and completely eliminated from the body. Nose bleeds and loss of fingernails are often reported after exposure to Spray.Seed. When larger amount are ingested a delayed, irreversible, non cancerous proliferation of lung cells occurs leading to respiratory failure and death. Medical treatment is only possible if administered soon after ingestion. As symptoms are minimal in the first few days after ingestion, any suspicion that ingestion may have occurred should be acted upon immediately. Putting Spray.Seed into soft drink or beer containers has been responsible for some tragedies. Spray.Seed contains an emetic to reduce the risk of accidental ingestion. For home gardens a similar product is formulated as a granule to reduce the risk of ingestion.
Mild poisoning occurs at < 20 mg paraquat ion/kg body weight and the effects are vomiting and diarrhoea.
Moderate to severe poisoning occurs at 20 - 30 mg paraquat ion/kg body weight and the effects are vomiting, abdominal discomfort, soreness and inflammation of the mouth, throat and oesophagus, difficulty in swallowing and, later, diarrhoea. Ulceration of lips, mouth, throat and intenstine may follow within 24 - 48 hours. Kidney and liver damage may appear 1 - 3 days after exposure. Can cause death by a delayed proliferating fibrosis of the lung within 1 - 3 weeks.
Lethal poisoning occurs at > 30 mg paraquat ion/kg body weight and the effects are nausea and vomiting, and can cause death by multi-organ failure and circulatory collapse within 48 hours. The lethal dose of diquat dibromide for man is approximately 4 - 6 g of diquat (equivalent to approx. 60 mg/kg body weight).
Can cause inflammation and in severe cases blistering of the skin. Contamination of the nails may cause white spots or in severe cases cracking and loss of the nail. Normal growth follows without delay. Intact skin is a very effective barrier to paraquat. Broken skin removes the barrier and paraquat may be absorbed. Repeated or prolonged skin contact may lead to allergic contact dermatitis.
Modelling predicted for intact human skin and diluted solutions that systemic toxicity would be unlikely, but the risk increased significantly with damaged skin or concentrated solutions.
Eye irritation may be delayed. May lead to severe, painful irritation and ulceration of corneal and conjunctival epithelium which may give rise to secondary infection. Loss of corneal and conjunctival epithelium and iritis can occur with the risk of secondary infection and consequent residual corneal scarring. Corneal oedema may persist for up to 3-4 weeks. There may be blurring of vision and permanent damage to eyes is a possibility.
Highly toxic if inhaled. However, unlikely to be hazardous by inhalation because of low vapour pressure of the material at ambient temperature. Nose bleeding and soreness of the throat may result from spray mist or dust trapped on the nasal mucosa. Irritating to the respiratory system. Pulmonary oedema may occur up to 48 hours after exposure and could prove fatal.
The product contains a stenching agent to give an offensive smell. This has been done to reduce the likelihood of accidental ingestion. This stenching agent may cause headaches and nausea in some people when inhaled. The presence of this offensive smell in the air does not necessarily indicate the presence of paraquat.
Studies in animals have shown that repeated doses of paraquat do not produce carcinogenic nor teratogenic effects or adverse reproductive effects. The dietary no effect level in the rat was 25 ppm of paraquat over 2 years. Ingestion studies in animals have shown that repeated doses of diquat produce cataracts in test animals (dog, rat). These effects have not been seen in occupationally exposed humans.
The ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) for humans (paraquat ion) is 0.004 mg/kg/day.
The ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) for humans (diquat ion) is 0.002 mg/kg/day.
26 FIRST AID:
If SWALLOWED: If poisoning occurs get to a doctor or hospital quickly, warning by telephone of the estimated arrival time so that treatment is not delayed. If more than 15 minutes from a hospital induce vomiting, if this has not already occurred, by tickling back of throat with a clean, blunt instrument (eg spoon handle). DO NOT delay the start of treatment.
Do NOT give anything by mouth to a semiconscious or unconscious patient.
If in EYES: Immediately irrigate with copious quantities of water for at least 20 minutes. Eyelids to be held open. Remove clothing if contaminated and wash skin. Urgently seek medical assistance. Transport to hospital or medical centre. If splashed with the concentrate, patients should be reviewed after 24 hours. Referral to an ophthalmologist should be considered.
If on SKIN: Immediately take off all contaminated clothing. Wash skin immediately with water followed by soap and water. If skin is broken, the component paraquat can be absorbed through the skin. Seek medical advice. Contaminated clothing should be laundered before reuse.
If INHALED: Remove victim from exposure. Remove contaminated clothing and loosen remaining clothing. Allow patient to assume most comfortable position and keep warm. Seek medical advice.
Advice to doctor: Rapid treatment is essential. Refer to “Paraquat Poisoning. A Practical Guide to Diagnosis, First Aid and Hospital Treatment” (2003 or later edition) - available at most major treatment hospitals, Poisons Information Centres and Syngenta Crop Protection Pty Ltd. paraquat_booklet.pdf
Treatment: Wash out stomach and test urine and gastric aspirate (if clear) for presence of paraquat. Give up to 1 litre of 15% aqueous suspension of Fuller's Earth orally or via gastric tube, together with a suitable purgative (200 mL of an aqueous solution of mannitol). Repeat administration of absorbent plus purgative until absorbent is seen in stools. This should normally take between 4 and 6 hours after the start of treatment.
Do not use supplemental oxygen.
With the possibility of late onset conjunctival ulceration it is advised that patients with paraquat eye injuries are reviewed the day after first presentation. At the review, consideration should be given to treating the eyes with a local antibiotic preparation to prevent secondary infection. Local treatment with a suitable steroid will aid resolution of granulation tissue. Corneal oedema, which may persist for up to 3 - 4 weeks, may cause blurring of vision.
Contact the Poisons Information Centre on 131126.
27 ENVIRONMENTAL FATE:
Spray.Seed is totally and very strongly absorbed to clay in the soil. It breaks down slowly by chemical and physical degradation. It has no effect on soil organisms or plant roots because it is not available in the soil solution. Lime and fertilisers will not displace Spray.Seed from the clay. Except in very sandy soils, the cation exchange capacity of the soil is not affected by Spray.Seed application. Large repeated doses over many years have shown no adverse effects on the soil or its productivity. It may be loosely bound to organic matter or trash on the soil surface. The half life of Spray.Seed is long but this does not reflect its biological activity.
Spray.Seed is degraded by ultraviolet light with a half life of a few days.
It is not metabolised by plants or animals. It is rapidly excreted by animals and does not accumulate in tissues or milk.