Strawberry

Fragaria X ananassa Duchesne

A hybrid of Fragaria virginiana and H. chiloensis
Synonyms - Fragaria vesca

Order: Rosales

Family: Rosaceae

Names:

Fragaria
Ananassa
Strawberry

Other Names:

Summary:

A perennial running herb with white flowers and conical red fruit.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two.

Leaves:

Stipules -
Petiole - Yes.
Blade - Toothed.

Stems:

Slender, root at the nodes.

Flower head:

Single flowers at the ends of stems.

Flowers:

Ovary -
Sepals -
Petals - White.
Stamens -
Anthers -

Fruit:

Succulent, red, conical berry.

Seeds:

Small.

Roots:

Key Characters:

White flowers.
Red conical fruit.
Trifoliate leaves with toothed edges.

Biology:

Life cycle:

Grown as an annual crop in Queensland and the Northern Territory and as a perennial crop in the southern states. Normally planted in autumn to winter in a polythene mulch but some commercial summer planting is also practised.

Physiology:

Susceptible to frost and hot winds.

Reproduction:

By stem fragments or runners.

Flowering times:

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

Runners.

Hybrids:

Many commercial varieties exist.

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Spread mainly by intentional planting of runners.

Origin and History:

The parents of the Strawberry, Fragaria virginiana comes for North America and H. chiloensis comes from South America.
Bred and introduced as a fruit crop and is now cosmopolitan.

Distribution:

ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.
Not recorded as naturalised.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate. Subtropical.
Prefers areas protected from frosts and hot winds.

Soil:

Prefers well drained soils with a pH of 5.5-6.5

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Fruit eaten fresh, made into conserves and wine.

Detrimental:

Toxicity:

Not recorded as toxic.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Herbicide resistance:

Biological Control:

Susceptible to several virus and mycoplasma diseases, Black Spot, Botrytis rot, Powdery Mildew, Target Spot and Verticillium Wilt.
Pests include Strawberry Aphid which spreads virus diseases, other Aphids, Light Brown Apple Moth, Slugs, Snails, Strawberry Bug, Two Spotted Mite and Birds

Related plants:

None.

Plants of similar appearance:

References:

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #558.1.

Reid, R.L. (1990) The Manual of Australian Agriculture. (Butterworths, Sydney). P173-174.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.