Swede

Brassica napus var. napobrassica (L.) Reichb.

Synonyms - Brassica napobrassica.

Order - Capparales

Family - Brassicaceae

Names:

Brassica is the Latin name for Cabbage.
Napus
Napobrassica
Swede

Other Names:

Rutabaga
Swede Turnip.

Summary:

A common vegetable with a large fleshy root.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two.

Leaves:

Stipules -
Petiole -
Blade -
Stem leaves -

Stems:

Flower stem -

Flower head:

Flowers:

Ovary -
Sepals -
Petals -
Stamens -
Anthers -

Fruit:

Pod.

Seeds:

Small.

Roots:

Swollen taproot.

Key Characters:

Biology:

Life cycle:

Planted in September for summer fodder or planted in December to February for autumn-winter fodder.

Physiology:

Sensitive to Boron deficiency.

Reproduction:

By seed.

Flowering times:

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

Hybrids:

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Spread mainly by intentional planting.

Origin and History:

Europe and Asia.

Distribution:

ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.
Naturalised in SA.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate. Mediterranean.

Soil:

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Common vegetable.
Roots and stem used for fodder.

Detrimental:

Toxicity:

Leaves and tubers may be toxic to cattle causing "Kale anaemia" but no cases have been recorded in Australia.

Symptoms:

Anaemia, loss of appetite, jaundice, weakness, reduced milk production, increased heart rate, diarrhoea, red urine and/or goitre.

Treatment:

Remove stock from source of Swede.

Legislation:

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Most of the Brassicaceae weeds have dormant seeds that continue to germinate throughout the season and for several years. They often mature and set seed very quickly. Manual removal is effective but must be done at least every 8-10 weeks. Once pods are formed, seed will often mature even if the plant has been uprooted. Soil disturbance often leads to a flush of seedlings.
Many are somewhat unpalatable, so grazing only offers partial control. They often flourish in undergrazed, sunny areas.
In bushland situations, fairly selective control can be achieved with 100 mL spray oil plus 0.1 g Eclipse® or 0.5 g Logran® in 10 L water. 5 mL Brodal® is often added to this mix to provide residual control of seedlings. Spray the plants until just wet from the seedling stage up to pod formation.
Isolated plants should be removed manually and burnt if flowering or seeding and a 10 m buffer area sprayed with 10 mL Brodal® in 10 L water.
500 mL/ha of glyphosate(450g/L) can be used at flowering to reduce the seed set of most species on roadsides without causing significant damage to most native plants.
Wick application with 1 part glyphosate(450g/L) in 2 parts water or overall spraying with 100 mL glyphosate(450g/L) in 10 L water provides reasonable control of most species though Wild Radish tends to regrow.

Herbicide resistance:

Biological Control:

Related plants:

Black Mustard (Brassica nigra)
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)
Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera)
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis)
Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala)
Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes)
Mediterranean Turnip (Brassica tournefortii)
Rape or Canola (Brassica napus var. napus)
Rapeseed (Brassica rapa var. sylvestris)
Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda)
Smooth Stemmed Turnip (Brassica oxyrrhina)
Swede (Brassica napus var. napobrassica)
Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa)
Twiggy Turnip (Brassica fruticulosa)
Winter Rape (Brassica napus var.biennis)
Brassica barelieri ssp. oxyrrhina
Brassica elongata
The native Brassicaceae species usually have short, broad and smooth pods.

Plants of similar appearance:

References:

Everist, S.L. (1974). Poisonous Plants of Australia. (Angus and Robertson, Sydney). P210.

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #195.6.

Reid, R.L. (1990) The Manual of Australian Agriculture. (Butterworths, Sydney). P277.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information for more information.