Tangled Burr Daisy

Calotis erinacea Steetz

Synonyms - Calotis erinacea var. biaristata

Family: Asteraceae.

Names:

Tangled Burr Daisy.

Summary:

A hairless, tangled stem, yellow daisy flowered, biennial or short lived perennial shrub up to 1000 mm tall and wide.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two. Club shaped. Tip pointed. Sides convex. Base tapered. Surface hairless.

First leaves:

Lance shaped. Tip pointed. Edges toothed. Hairless.

Leaves:

Form a basal rosette and alternate on the stem.
Stipules -
Petiole - on lowest leaves only.
Blade - Rigid. Parallel sided to oblong or oval. Sharply toothed near the tip. Rarely with smooth edges. 60 mm long x 7 mm wide. Upper leaves often have smooth edges with pointed tips.

Stems:

Erect, hairless, 300-1000 mm long. Much branched and tangled.

Flower head:

10-22 hairless bracts, egg to lance shaped, 2.5-4.5 mm long. On the ends of leafless stalks.

Flowers:

15 mm diameter, yellow, daisy like.
Ovary -
Ray florets - ligulate, female, more or less in one row. Style branches parallel sided.
Petals - 24-50 ligules, yellow. 5-6 mm long. Narrow.
Disk florets - Bisexual, barren. Style branches lance shaped and papillose.
Stamens -
Anthers - Obtuse at the base.

Fruit:

Achene. Flattened. Almost triangular. 3 mm long with 2-9 awns. Usually there are 2-4 spreading awns, 2-4 mm long, that broaden at the base to join and form a papery cup, often with alternating shorter awns. Smooth and hairless on the outside, but there may be fine, furry hairs inside the cup. Ridged surface.

Seeds:

Light to dark brown, flattened, about 3 mm long.

Roots:

Key Characters:

Biology:

Life cycle:

Short lived perennial or biennial. Flowers mainly in spring. Seeds germinate in autumn and winter. Grows mainly in spring. May loose most of its leaves during dry periods to leave a mass of tangled stems.

Physiology:

Reproduction:

By seed.

Flowering times:

Mainly in spring.

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

Hybrids:

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Origin and History:

Australia.

Distribution:

ACT, NSW, NT, QLD, SA, VIC, WA.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Sand dunes and well drained sandy soils. Sand hummocks with deep red sands. Often on unstable areas.

Climate:

Soil:

Prefers well drained sandy soils such as sand hummocks of deep red sand and dune crests.

Plant Associations:

Mulga, White cypress pine and others.

Significance:

Beneficial:

Moderately palatable to stock.
A useful stabiliser of sandy areas prone to drift.
Provides shelter.

Detrimental:

Forms dense stands.
May cause temporary blindness in horses.
Seeds may injure stock and cause severe matting of wool.

Toxicity:

Not recorded as toxic.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Herbicide resistance:

Biological Control:

No biocontrol envisaged because Calotis is a totally Australian genus.

Related plants:

Anchor Burr Daisy (C. ancyrocarpa)
Bogan Flea (C. hispidula)
Channel Burr Daisy (C. porphyroglossa)
Cutleaf Burr Daisy (C. anthemoides)
Fluff Burr Daisy(C. inermis)
Leafy Burr Daisy (C. latiuscula)
Mountain Burr Daisy (C. cuneata)
Purple Burr Daisy (C.cuneifolia)
Rough Burr Daisy (C. scabiosifolia)
Showy Burr Daisy (C. cymbacantha)
Tufted Burr Daisy(C. scapigera)
White Burr Daisy (C. dentex)
Woolly headed Burr Daisy (C. multicaulis, C. plumulifera)
Yellow Burr Daisy (C.lappulacea)

Plants of similar appearance:

References:

Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia). P861. Diagram.

Cunningham, G.M., Mulham, W.E., Milthorpe, P.L. and Leigh, J.H. (1992). Plants of Western New South Wales. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P654. Diagram. Photo.

Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #230.7.

Wilding, J.L. et al. (1987). Crop weeds. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P42. Diagram. Photo.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information for more information.