Triathlon

1 Trade nameManufacturerForm
CONQUEST HOWITZER SELECTIVE HERBICIDECONQUEST CROP PROTECTION PTY LTDEMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATE
TRIATHLON HERBICIDEADAMA AUSTRALIA PTY LIMITEDEMULSIFIABLE CONCENTRATE

2 PRICE:

$17.09/L

3 ACTIVE INGREDIENTS: Bromoxynil 150g/L + diflufenican25g/L +MCPA 250g/L

4 CHEMICAL GROUP: C,F,I

Group C - nitrile (triazine)

Group I - nicotinanilide.

Group F - phenoxy.

5 RELATED HERBICIDES:

2,4-D amine plus Diuron 500 2:1 tankmix2,4-D 333g/L + diuron 167g/L
BrodalDiflufenican 500g/L
Bromoxynil plus Dicamba plus MCPABromoxynil + Dicamba + MCPA
Bromoxynil plus MCPABromoxynil 200g/L + MCPA 200g/L
Bromoxynil plus PicolinafenBromoxynil 250g/L + picolinafen 25g/L
Diuron plus MCPADiuron 250g/L + MCPA 250g/L
JaguarBromoxynil 250g/L + diflufenican25g/L
Linuron plus MCPALinuron 170g/kg + MCPA 330g/Lkg
Norflurazon 800Norflurazon 800g/kg
SniperPicolinafen 750g/kg
TigrexDiflufenican 25g/L + MCPA 250g/L

6 GENERAL DESCRIPTION:

Triathlon is an early post emergence, selective herbicide for control of a wide range of broadleaved plants in cereals and pastures. The three active ingredients are absorbed through the leaves and MCPA and diflufenican are translocated throughout the plant while bromoxynil tends to be contact in action. Diflufenican is also absorbed through the roots and provides short term residual control of some weeds close to emergence.

7 APPLICATION METHODS AND TIPS:

Best results in fine weather when soil is moist and rain a few days later.

Young actively growing weeds are most susceptible.

Do not apply with spray oils

Usually applied by boom spray with water as a carrier.

Avoid drift onto hormone sensitive plants as it contains MCPA.

Don't apply if frost is imminent and allow a 5-7 days for plant growth to recover after frosts.

If residual control of weeds is required use higher rates or add more diflufenican.

Poisonous plants may become more palatable after spraying and cause stock losses.

8 WEATHER:

Rainfast in 4 hours.

Frost effects: Poorer results in frosty weather. This may include poorer weed control and increased crop damage or more persistent symptoms. Frost a day or two after spraying generally OK. Allow 5-7 days for plants to recover from last frost before spraying.

Wind: Spray when the wind is away from desirable hormone sensitive plants.

Inversions: Avoid spraying in inversion conditions if sensitive broad-leaved plants are within two kilometres.

Temperature: Poorer results in cold conditions. Bromoxynil works better when warm.

Delta T and relative humidity: Avoid application when Delta T is greater than

9 ADJUVANTS:

Wetting agents: Generally not required. Addition may cause more crop symptoms.

Spray oils: Not recommended for selective applications and generally not required. Addition may cause more crop symptoms.

10 WATER QUALITY:

Hard water: May cause product to drop out of solution. Jar test before use.

Salty water: Storage time in spray tank may be less than 4 hours with salty water. Spray immediately after mixing.

Colloids: No specific effect.

pH: Don't use alkaline water or add an acidifier. Acidic water is OK.

Tank life: Apply within a few hours of mixing. Prolonged exposure to cold temperatures may result in the product settling out in the tank.

11 COMPATIBILITY:

Trace elements may drop the product out of solution. Jar test first.

Efficacy of diclofop-methyl is generally reduced by 5 - 10 % when mixed with diflufenican plus MCPA products. Do NOT use more than 800 mL/ha of Triathlon when mixing with diclofop-methyl to minimize antagonism.

Group C soil residual herbicides such as simazine, atrazine and diuron can sensitise plants to diflufenican which can lead to better weed control but may also result in more damage to broad-leaved pasture species like clover.

See HerbiGuide Compatibilities button.

12 EQUIPMENT:

Boom sprays

Water volume: 30-1000 L/ha for boom sprays (70-100 L/ha is preferred). Use finer droplets with low water volumes to keep adequate coverage.

Flat fan nozzles at 150 - 400 kPa (21.5 - 60 psi) are commonly used (e.g. 110-01 to 110-03).

Hand sprays

Water volume: 500-1000 L/ha.

Aircraft

Water volume: 30 L/ha or more. Fine droplets are required to get adequate coverage on small weeds but this increases the level of drift.

13 SPRAYER DECONTAMINATION:

Clean Up:

A boom cleaner is recommended to clean the boom at the end of spraying to reduce the effects of solvents on rubber components in sprayers.

Remove filters and nozzles and manually clean separately. Rinse with boom cleaner and run through boom. Rinse with water.

Clean soon after spraying to reduce the risk of forming dried deposits that may be difficult to remove.

Decontamination:

Remove filters and clean then soak in 500 mL household ammonia in 10 L water for 30 minutes.

Rinse sprayer with soapy water (e.g. 500 mL or g of Drive, Dynamo, Omo or Surf per 100 L water) or water plus 0.25% wetting agent and run through boom. Fill with 1 litre of 3% household ammonia per 100 litres of water and circulate for at least 15 minutes (allow to stand for several hours if possible). Triple rinse with water. Or use a commercial spray tank and equipment cleaner.

Rinse nozzles and filters in water and replace then rinse the whole system with water again.

Don't use chlorine based cleaners in combination with ammonia.

14 HERBICIDE RESISTANCE:

Tolerant plants are expected to occur and may dominate the weed population after repeated applications.

15 REPLANTING INTERVALS:

CropTime
CanolaCultivate to dissipate herbicide before sowing

16 WITHHOLDING PERIODS:

CropTypeTime
AllHarvestNot required
AllGrazing14 days

17 RE-ENTRY PERIOD:

Wear protective clothing if in contact with the crop before the spray has dried.

18 PROTECTIVE CLOTHING:

Overalls, boots and washable hat. Use gloves and face shield or goggles when handling the concentrate.

19 SOIL:

Soil texture: No specific effect.

Soil pH: No specific effect.

Soil organic matter: No specific effect.

Soil moisture at application: Best results when applied to moist soil.

More crop damage may occur under waterlogged conditions.

Poorer weed control when soil is dry. Very poor weed control when plants are drought stressed.

20 MODE OF ACTION:

The diflufenican component inhibits carotenoid synthesis at the phytoene desaturase step (PDS inhibitor) resulting in white or bleached patches on green leaves.

The MCPA component disrupts plant cell growth and elongation resulting in distorted plant growth.

The bromoxynil component is a photosynthesis inhibitor of photosystem II (PSII) .

Uptake and translocation:

Diflufenican component is absorbed by roots and shoots and has some translocation through the xylem system of the plant.

MCPA component is absorbed through the leaves and translocated throughout the plant.

Bromoxynil component has contact action and is not translocated away from the point of contact of the spray droplet.

Physiological effects:

Diflufenican component acts on the apical meristems.

MCPA component acts on the shoot an root meristems.

Bromoxynil component acts on the leaf tissue.

Residual Life and Breakdown:

Diflufenican component will provide about a months useful residual control of Brassica weeds like Wild Radish, Turnips, Mustards and Volunteer Canolas. Poor residual control can be expected under dry conditions, on non wetting soils, on high organic matter soils, where there has been poor coverage of the soil surface or where cultivation (or soil disturbance) has occurred after application.

The bromoxynil and MCPA component has no useful residual activity.

21 SELECTIVITY:

Provides suppression of Dock, Paterson's Curse, Erodium, Doublegee and Chickweed in pastures if applied early in the season. Grazing 7 days after spraying generally improves control but stock cannot be sold for slaughter for at least 8 weeks. High levels of Paterson's Curse, Capeweed or Variegated Thistle may cause stock poisoning due to nitrate toxicity.

Control of transplanted or stressed is usually poor.

Control of plants regenerating from rootstocks, rhizomes and bulbs is generally poor.

Crop tolerance:

Transient crop yellowing may occur which rarely results in yield loss unless other factors are also stressing the crop. Rates above 800 mL/ha applied before the 5 leaf stage of cereals may cause unacceptable damage.

Phalaris and Cocksfoot may have reduced production after application.

The tolerance of clover species can be variable.

Group C soil residual herbicides such as simazine, atrazine and diuron that are in the soil from previous applications can sensitise plants to diflufenican which may result in more damage to broad-leaved pasture species but also makes many broadleaf weeds more sensitive.

Varietal sensitivities:

Barley and Kulin Wheat may be damaged by label rates if applied before the 5 leaf stage.

Effect on Clover Species:

Variable.

Effect on Medic Species:

Damages medics.

Effect on Lucerne:

Established Lucerne under cereals will generally survive applications. Lucerne has marginal tolerance.

Effect on Native Plants:

Most established native plants will tolerate low rates

22 DISEASE AND INSECT EFFECTS:

Crops stressed by disease or insect attack are more likely to be damaged.

23 PLANT SYMPTOMS:

Symptoms usually take 5-10 days to appear. They include bleaching and striping of leaves often with a yellow spot surrounded by green leaf initially, distorted growth, cupping of leaves, curling of soft stems, stem splitting and marginal necrosis of leaves.

Diflufenican component causes bleaching of the younger leaves followed by death of the older leaves.

MCPA component causes twisting and distortion of stems and leaves and cupping of leaves then wilting and death.

Bromoxynil component causes blisters and dead patches on leaves with withering occurring within a few days especially in warm weather.


SECONDARY EFFECTS:

Residual diflufenican in the soil may cause cotyledons of plants emerging after spraying to be yellowed or have a yellow eye-spot.

24 TOXICITY:

Summary:

Persons sensitised to bromoxynil should avoid contact with this product.

Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.

Irritating to skin

Risk of serious eye damage.

Repeated exposure may cause allergic disorders.

Details:

SUSMP classification (Poison schedule): S6

Mammalian toxicity:

MCPA Acute oral LD50: 700-1160 mg/kg (rat),

Bromoxynil Acute oral LD50: 63-260 mg/kg (Guinea pig, rabbit),

[For comparison table salt is 3000 mg/kg]. Acute dermal LD50: >2040 mg/kg (rabbit).

Skin: MCPA Dermal LD50 >4000 mg/kg (rabbit).

Bromoxynil Dermal LD50 >2000 mg/kg (rabbit).

Slightly to moderately irritating (rabbit). Will irritate skin. Harmful in contact with skin. Repeated exposure may cause skin rash, itchiness, dryness and cracking.

A similar product was a skin sensitiser in Guinea pigs.

Eye: Slightly irritating (rabbit). Will damage eyes. Transient stinging and reddening of the eyes may occur on exposure to the mist.

Vapour inhalation: Diflufenican LC50 4 hour >5.12 mg/L air (rat). MCPA-2-ethyl hexyl ester LC50 4 hour >5.11 mg/L (rat). Harmful if inhaled. May irritate mucous membranes of the nose and throat. Vapours of the solvent may cause drowsiness and dizziness.

Chronic oral toxicity: NOEL mg/kg for two years.

Diflufenican and MCPA are not carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic in animal studies. N-methl-2-pyrrolidone showed a developmental toxic effect at doses that were maternally toxic.

Carcinogen Status:

SWA: No significant ingredient is classified as carcinogenic by SWA.

NTP: No significant ingredient is classified as carcinogenic by NTP.

IARC: No significant ingredient is classified as carcinogenic by IARC.

Bromoxynil is a SWA Class 3 Reproductive risk, possible risk of harm to the unborn child.

Bromoxynil is Classed by SWA as a potential sensitiser by skin contact.

Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI):

MCPA Chronic toxicity: Dietary levels of approximately 50 mg/kg/day and 125 mg/kg/day over 7 months caused reduced feeding rates and retarded growth rates in rats. White blood cell counts and ratios were not affected, but some reductions in red blood cell counts and haemoglobin did appear to be associated with exposure to MCPA at oral dose levels of approximately 20 mg/kg/day. In the same study, oral doses of approximately 5 mg/kg/day caused increased

relative kidney weights, and oral doses of approximately 20 mg/kg/day caused increased relative liver weights. Another study in rats showed no effects on kidney or liver weights over an unspecified period at oral doses of 60

mg/kg/day, but oral doses of 150 mg/kg/day did cause reversible increases in these weights over a course of 3 months. Very high dermal doses of 500 mg/kg/day caused reduced body weight, and even higher dermal doses of

1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day resulted in increased mortality and observable changes in liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus tissue.

Bromoxynil Chronic toxicity: In one documented case of chronic exposure (about 1 year) of humans to Bromoxynil, workers showed symptoms of weight loss, fever, vomiting, headache, and urinary problems. Studies have shown that

Bromoxynil has no effect on rats given dietary doses of 15 and 50 mg/kg/day for 90 days. Doses up to 5 mg/kg/day for 2 years had no impact on blood chemistry or urine.

Other Species:

Bromoxynil

Birds: High toxicity to pheasants. Moderate toxicity to hens. LC50 96 hour = 50 mg/kg for Pheasants. LC50 96 hour = 100 mg/kg for Bobwhite quail. LC50 96 hour = 200-240 mg/kg for hens and ducks

Fish: High toxicity. LC50 96 hour = 0.05 mg/L for rainbow trout.

Invertebrates: Low toxicity. LC50 >100 mg/L for Daphnia for MCPA technical.

Bees: Not toxic.

Arthropods: Very low toxicity.

Earthworms: toxicity.

Algae: toxicity.

MCPA 2-ethyl hexyl ester

Birds: Moderate toxicity. LC50 96 hour = 97-377 mg/kg for Bobwhite quail

Fish: Slight toxicity. LC50 96 hour = 117-232 mg/L for rainbow trout.

Invertebrates: toxicity. LC50 >100 mg/L for Daphnia for MCPA technical.

Bees: Low toxicity. LD50 104ug/bee

Arthropods: Very low toxicity.

Earthworms: Low toxicity.

Algae: Low toxicity. EC50 > 392 mg/L for Selenastrum capricornutum.

Diflufenican

Birds: toxicity. LD50 = >4000 mg/kg for mallard duck. LD50 >2150 mg/kg for quail.

Fish: toxicity. LC50 96 hour > 0.109 mg/L for rainbow trout.

Invertebrates: toxicity. EC50 48 hour >0.24 mg/L for Daphnia magna.

Bees: Low toxicity.

Arthropods: toxicity.

Earthworms: Low toxicity.

Algae: EC50 > 0.00025 mg/L for Scenedesmus subspicatus.

25 TOXICITY SYMPTOMS:

For MCPA - headache, vomiting, diarrhoea, muscular twitching, lethargy, liver and kidney function disturbance. Large ingestions may cause stupor, central nervous system depression, coma and respiratory failure.

Solvents may cause bronchopneumonia or pulmonary oedema if inhaled or if vomit is inhaled.

If swallowed symptoms may include burning sensation and reddening of skin in mouth and throat as it is an oral irritant..

26 FIRST AID:

If SWALLOWED: Do NOT induce vomiting. Give a glass of water. Keep patient at rest. Seek medical advice. Do NOT give anything by mouth to a semiconscious or unconscious patient.

If in EYES: Irrigate with plenty of water immediately and see a Doctor or ophthalmologist urgently as serious eye damage can occur.

If on SKIN: Rinse with plenty of water, remove contaminated clothing, wash with soap and water.

If INHALED: Remove patient to fresh air. If breathing stops apply artificial respiration and seek medical advice. Symptoms of pulmonary oedema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure.

Advice to doctor: Treat symptomatically. Will damage eyes and may irritate skin.

Product contains hydrocarbon solvent and liquid aspirated into lungs may cause bronchopneumonia or pulmonary oedema.

Contact the Poisons Information Centre on 131126.

27 ENVIRONMENTAL FATE:

Classified as N, Dangerous to the environment.

The MCPA ester form in these products is generally less toxic than MCPA amine to mammals but more toxic to fish.

Dangerous to fish.

Half life in soil: DT50 for MCPA in soil <7 days after initial lag phase. DT50 for diflufenican is 15-30 depending on soil type. Bromoxynil half life in sandy soil was ~ 10 days and up to 2 weeks in clays. Solvents are readily biodegradable.

Half life in water: days at pH5 and 35 C.

It has a leaching index of . (for comparison, trifluralin is 0-1 and chlorsulfuron is 25-30).

It has an EPA classification for soil mobility that ranges from

Ground water contamination: Does not accumulate in soil or water.

Accumulation in milk and tissues. Unlikely

pH stability:

Photolysis rate:

Hydrolysis half life:

Biodegradation rate: Biodegradable.

Bioconcentration factor (BCF): Does not accumulate in the environment

Bromoxynil is broken down by some soil bacteria. It may inhibit the action of other bacteria that promote the formation of nitrite by a process called nitrification.

28 REGISTERED CROPS:

See HerbiGuide Species Solution tab.

29 REGISTERED WEEDS:

See HerbiGuide Species Solution tab.

30 REGULATION AND LEGAL:

APVMA Numbers:

UN number: None allocated.

CAS numbers: MCPA ethyl hexyl ester 29450-45-1, Diflufenican 83164-33-4. Bromoxynil 1689-84-5. Hydrocarbon solvent 90438-79-2. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone 872-50-4. Non ionic emulsifiers.

PP Chemical Code:

Hazchem code:

NOHSC classification: Hazardous.

Xn, Harmful. Xi, Irritating.

Land transport: ADG

Dangerous goods class (ADG): Not classed as a dangerous good.

However it is a C1 Combustible Liquid and for storage meets the definition of Dangerous Goods.

Sea transport: IMDG

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG):

Proper shipping name: ENVIRONMENTALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE, LIQUID, N.O.S. (contains diflufenican, MCPA 2-ethyl hexyl ester) MARINE POLLUTANT.

Technical Name:

Hazard Class: 9.

ID Number: .

Packaging group: III

EMS Number:

EPG:

Air transport: IATA/ICAO

Proper Shipping Name:

Technical Name:

ID Number:

Packaging group:

Cargo Packing Instructions:

Passenger Packing Instructions:

Environmental Hazard:



Risk phrases: R43, R63, R20/22, R36/38, R51/53. May cause sensitisation by skin contact. Possible risk of harm to the unborn child. Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed. Irritating to eyes and skin. Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects to the aquatic environment.

Safety Phrases: S20, S23, S28, S38, S61, S24/25, S36/37. When using, do not eat or drink. Do not breathe vapours or mists. After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of soap and water. In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment. Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/Safety Data Sheets. Avoid contact with skin and eyes. Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.

Hazard Statement:

H227: Combustible liquid.

H302: Harmful if swallowed.

H315: Causes skin irritation.

H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction.

H320: Causes eye irritation.

H332: Harmful if inhaled.

H335: May cause respiratory irritation.

H361: Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child.

H411: Toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.

31 PROPERTIES:

Colour: Amber liquid

Odour: Strong ester odour.

Form: Liquid, emulsifiable.

Chemical name:

Empirical formula:

IUPAC:

CAS: MCPA ethyl hexyl ester 29450-45-1, Diflufenican 83164-33-4. Bromoxynil 1689-84-5. Hydrocarbon solvent 90438-79-2. N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone 872-50-4.

Water solubility: Emulsifies in water.

Oil solubility:

Octanol:Water ratio: Diflufenican LogPow = 4.2.

Soil organic carbon absorption coefficient (Koc):

Vapour Pressure: 0.34 kPa for solvent.

Vapour density:

Dissociation constant: pKa

Melting point: C.

Boiling point: 176-200 C for the solvent.

Molecular weight:

Bulk density:

Specific gravity: 0.988 at 20 C.

Viscosity: CPS.

pH:

Flammability: Combustible liquid. Class C1 combustible (AS 1940). LEL = 0.8. UEL = 6.7 Vol. % in air. Flammable Category 4 (GHS),

Flashpoint: >65 C. (which is the flashpoint for the hydrocarbon solvent.

Autoignition: 321 C for the hydrocarbon solvent.

Corrosivity: Solvents may affect some rubber components in sprayers. Clean equipment after spraying each day.

Shelf Life: 3 years.

(When Stored under Ideal Conditions)

Incompatible with acids, bases, oxidising and reducing agents. Rubber components may be affected by the solvents.

Hazardous reactions: May produce and exothermic reaction with strong acids or alkalis.

32 SPILLS:

Extinguish possible sources of ignition.

Absorb spill with earth, sand, clay or absorbent material.

Ventilate area after cleanup.

33 FIRE:

Extinguish with water spray, foam, carbon dioxide or dry agent.

Toxic fumes may be released in fire. Wear breathing apparatus or avoid smoke.

34 COMMENTS:

Plants such as Paterson's Curse, Capeweed and Variegated Thistle may become more palatable after spraying and cause stock losses.

35 REFERENCES:

Ashton, F.M. and Crafts, A.S. (1981) Mode of Action of Herbicides. (Wiley-Interscience publication).

Kearney, P.C. and Kaufman, D.D. (1976). Herbicides. Chemistry, degradation and mode of action. Vol 1 & 2.

Farmoz (2104) Triathlon label and SDS.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. For more information see www.herbiguide.com.au or phone 08 98444064.