Triticale

Triticum X Secale

Synonyms - Triticosecale

Order: Poales

Family: Poaceae

Names:

Triticum
Secale
Triticale is derived from a combination of the genus names of the parents Triticum or Wheat and Secale or Rye.
It is a cross between Durum Wheat and Cereal Rye

Summary:

A tall growing cereal similar to wheat with compact heads and oval grain.

Description:

Cotyledons:

One.

First leaves:

Single and similar to later leaves.

Leaves:

Emerging leaves rolled in the shoot.
Blade - Parallel sided. Flat. Clockwise twist. 30-300 mm long x 10-20 mm wide.
Ligule - Short membrane
Auricles - Present, occasionally with hairs on the shoulders.
Sheath - Rolled. Prominent veins. Often bluish green at the base.

Stems:

Many, unbranched, arise from base, erect, up to 1500 mm tall. Hollow with solid nodes.

Flower head:

Compact spike, squarish in cross section, awned.

Flowers:

Spikelets -
Florets -
Glumes -
Palea -
Lemma -
Stamens -
Anthers -

Fruit:

Grain.

Seeds:

Pale brown, dull, elongated oval, wrinkled grain. 8-12 mm long x 2.5-4 mm wide. Easily rubbed from the husks.
23-36 per gram.

Roots:

Fibrous.

Key Characters:

Emerging leaves rolled in the shoot.
Leaf blade flat with a clockwise twist.
Short membranous ligule.
Auricles.

Seed is a grain like wheat.

Biology:

Life cycle:

Annual. Seed is planted in autumn. The plant grows over winter then elongates and flowers in spring. Volunteer seed will germinate any time adequate moisture is available.

Physiology:

More tolerant to water logging than wheat.
More resistant to fungal leaf diseases than wheat.
Protein content is similar to wheat but it generally has higher lysine levels.
Bread making quality is inferior to wheat but it may be used as a Rye flour substitute.

Reproduction:

By seed.

Flowering times:

Spring.

Seed Biology and Germination:

Little dormancy.

Vegetative Propagules:

None.

Hybrids:

Triticale is a hybrid itself between Wheat and Cereal Rye. There are many commercial cultivars available.

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Spread by intentional planting or grain spilt on roadsides.

Origin and History:

Triticale is a cross between wheat and cereal rye. The first records date back to a sterile cross in Scotland in 1875 and then a partially fertile cross from Germany in 1888. However the cross received little attention until 1954 when the University of Manitoba in Canada started a breeding program. Initially, bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was crossed with Rye (Secale cereale) to form an octoploid cross then Durum Wheat (Triticum durum) was crossed with Rye to form a hexaploid crosses and the first variety called Rosner was released in 1969. All Australian cultivars are hexaploid. The main varieties grown are Currency, Coorong, Satu and Tyalla.

Distribution:

ACT, NSW, QLD, NT, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate. Mediterranean.

Soil:

Grows on a wide range of soils including temporarily water logged areas.

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Fodder.
Used for human consumption in bread, cakes, biscuits, cereals and as an additive for to improve the nutritional value of chapatti in developing countries. It also has potential for distilling.

Detrimental:

Weed of following crops.

Toxicity:

May cause grain poisoning.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Usually disappears in a few years without intervention.
Continual grazing provides good control.

Herbicide resistance:

None reported.

Biological Control:

Related plants:

Wheat (Triticum spp.)
Cereal Rye (Secale cereale)

Plants of similar appearance:

Barley.

References:

Moerkerk, M.R. and Barnett, A.G. (1998). More Crop Weeds. R.G. and F.J. Richardson, Melbourne. P46 Diagrams. Photos.

Reid, R.L. (1990) The Manual of Australian Agriculture. (Butterworths, Sydney). P78-79, 254.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.