Order: PoalesFamily: Poaceae
Summary:A tall growing cereal similar to wheat with compact heads and oval grain.
First leaves:Single and similar to later leaves.
Leaves:Emerging leaves rolled in the shoot.
Stems:Many, unbranched, arise from base, erect, up to 1500 mm tall. Hollow with solid nodes.
Flower head:Compact spike, squarish in cross section, awned.
Seeds:Pale brown, dull, elongated oval, wrinkled grain. 8-12 mm long x 2.5-4 mm wide. Easily rubbed from the husks.
Key Characters:Emerging leaves rolled in the shoot.
Physiology:More tolerant to water logging than wheat.
Seed Biology and Germination:Little dormancy.
Hybrids:Triticale is a hybrid itself between Wheat and Cereal Rye. There are many commercial cultivars available.
Population Dynamics and Dispersal:Spread by intentional planting or grain spilt on roadsides.
Origin and History:Triticale is a cross between wheat and cereal rye. The first records date back to a sterile cross in Scotland in 1875 and then a partially fertile cross from Germany in 1888. However the cross received little attention until 1954 when the University of Manitoba in Canada started a breeding program. Initially, bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was crossed with Rye (Secale cereale) to form an octoploid cross then Durum Wheat (Triticum durum) was crossed with Rye to form a hexaploid crosses and the first variety called Rosner was released in 1969. All Australian cultivars are hexaploid. The main varieties grown are Currency, Coorong, Satu and Tyalla.
Distribution:ACT, NSW, QLD, NT, SA, TAS, VIC, WA.
Soil:Grows on a wide range of soils including temporarily water logged areas.
Detrimental:Weed of following crops.
Toxicity:May cause grain poisoning.
Management and Control:Thresholds:
Herbicide resistance:None reported.
Biological Control:Related plants:
Plants of similar appearance:Barley.
References:Moerkerk, M.R. and Barnett, A.G. (1998). More Crop Weeds. R.G. and F.J. Richardson, Melbourne. P46 Diagrams. Photos.