White Mustard

Sinapis alba L.

Synonyms -

Family: Brassicaceae

Names:

Sinapis is from the Greek sinapi meaning mustard.
Alba means white and refers to the pale colour of the seeds.
White Mustard because it has white seeds and is in the Mustard family

Other Names:

Mustard

Summary:

A hairless or sparsely bristly winter annual with leaves that are deeply lobed or with leaflets. It has 4-petalled, yellow flowers in spring that form 10-25 mm long pods with a 10-20 mm long, flat sabre-like beak. There are 2-8, white, spherical seeds in each pod.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two. Heart shaped. Tip indented. Edges smooth. Base squarish. Hairy on the lower surface and edges. Petiole loner than the blade, red and hairy. Young stem red to purple.

First leaves:

Oval. Tip rounded. Deeply undulating edges. Wrinkled surface with prominent veins. Hairy.

Leaves:

Stipules -
Petiole - Shorter than leaf blade on lower leaves, very short on upper leaves.
Blade - Oval in outline, to 150 mm long. 2-6 deep lobes with a large, oval end lobe or divided into leaflets with a larger terminal leaflet. Lobes( or leaflets) have teeth or are lobed also. Tip round to pointed. Base squarish and may be tapered on the leaflets. Usually roughly hairy.
Stem leaves - Smaller with a shorter petiole.

Stems:

Flower stem - Erect, 300-800 mm tall. May have stiff hairs.

Flower head:

Dense panicle like raceme that lengthens as the fruits mature. Flowers alternate.

Flowers:

Yellow, 4 petals, 12-15 mm diameter.
Ovary -
Sepals - Spreading. Half as long as the petals, 5-7.5 mm long.
Petals - 4. Yellow, 10-15 mm long.
Stamens -
Anthers -

Fruit:

20-40 mm long (including the beak) by 3-4 mm diameter, 2 celled, cylindrical pod with 3-5 veins. Constricted between the 2-8 seeds. Beak curved, conical and flattened (flat sword shaped), 10-30 mm long, bristly and with one or no seed. Pod and beak usually covered in stiff hairs. Pods on stout, stalks, 8-13 mm long, that are almost at right angles to the stem.
1-4 seeds in each cell in a single row. J.Black

Seeds:

Pale yellow brown, dull, spherical, 1.7-2.3 mm diameter. Surface with a slightly frosted appearance and hairless. Pungent taste. Tip round. Edges round and smooth. Base round.

Roots:

Taproot.

Key Characters:

Siliquas hispid with a flattened beak, not appressed to the stem, more than 3 times as long as broad, cylindrical and constricted between the seeds.
Beak seedless.
Septum of fruit broad,
1-4 seeded in each valve.
Valves 3-5 nerved.
Fruit dehiscent, the seeds released by the falling valves.
Seeds spherical.
Adapted from Nancy Burbidge

Biology:

Life cycle:

Annual. Seeds germinate from autumn to spring and develop a rosette of leaves. The flowering stem emerges in spring and plants die soon after seeding with the onset of high temperatures and summer drought.

Physiology:

Reproduction:

By seed.

Flowering times:

Spring in Western NSW.

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

Hybrids:

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Spread by seed and intentional plantings.

Origin and History:

Mediterranean, Western Asia and Europe.

Distribution:

ACT, NSW, QLD, TAS, VIC.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate to sub tropical.

Soil:

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Fodder but may be toxic.
Sown for the seeds to make mustard powder and the edible leaves that are used as a salad vegetable. Prepared mustard is a mixture of the ground seeds of White Mustard (Sinapis alba), Black Mustard (Brassica nigra) and starch and is used as an emetic and in mustard plasters

Detrimental:

Weed of crops and roadsides.

Toxicity:

Cattle may be poisoned by the stubble of White Mustard crops or pods and seeds in feed and meals, though field cases in Australia are rare.
Oil of White Mustard can cause blistering and ulceration of the skin, burning of the tissues, heart stimulation, loss of consciousness and death. It can also induce eczema and urticaria (hives).

Symptoms:

Treatment:

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Normal grazing usually provides reasonable control. Heavy infestations or stubbles may cause stock illness. Spraying with 2,4-D amine or Tigrex® is cheap and reasonably effective.

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Buy grain and produce from White Mustard free areas.
Manually remove isolated plants.
Prevent seed set. Spray small infested areas with 10 g/ha Eclipse® plus 500mL/ha of Brodal® plus 1% spray oil in winter each year.
Most of the Brassicaceae weeds have dormant seeds that continue to germinate throughout the season and for several years. They often mature and set seed very quickly. Manual removal is effective but must be done at least every 8-10 weeks. Once pods are formed, seed will often mature even if the plant has been uprooted. Soil disturbance often leads to a flush of seedlings.
Many are somewhat unpalatable, so grazing only offers partial control. They often flourish in under-grazed, sunny areas.
In bushland situations, fairly selective control can be achieved with 100 mL spray oil plus 0.1 g Eclipse® or 0.5 g Logran® in 10 L water. 5 mL Brodal® is often added to this mix to provide residual control of seedlings. Spray the plants until just wet from the seedling stage up to pod formation.
Isolated plants should be removed manually and burnt if flowering or seeding and a 10 m buffer area sprayed with 10 mL Brodal® in 10 L water.
500 mL/ha of glyphosate(450g/L) can be used at flowering to reduce the seed set of most species on roadsides without causing significant damage to most native plants.
Wick application with 1 part glyphosate(450g/L) in 2 parts water or overall spraying with 100 mL glyphosate(450g/L) in 10 L water provides reasonable control of most Brassicaceae species though Wild Radish tends to regrow.

Herbicide resistance:

None reported.

Biological Control:

Related plants:

Flax-leaf Alyssum (Alyssum linifolium)
Wall Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)

Black Mustard (Brassica nigra)
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)
Brussels Sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera)
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)
Chinese Cabbage (Brassica chinensis)
Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea)
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala)
Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes)
Mediterranean Turnip (Brassica tournefortii)
Rape or Canola (Brassica napus var. napus)
Rapeseed (Brassica rapa var. sylvestris)
Savoy cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. sabauda)
Smooth Stemmed Turnip (Brassica barrelieri subsp. oxyrrhina was Brassica oxyrrhina)
Swede (Brassica napus var. napobrassica)
Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa)
Twiggy Turnip (Brassica fruticulosa)
Winter Rape (Brassica napus var. biennis)
Brassica elongata

Sea Rocket (Cakile maritima)
White Ball Mustard (Calepina irregularis)
Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)
Common Bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta)
Wood Bittercress (Cardamine flexuosa) is not in WA.
Ward's Weed (Carrichtera annua)
Wall Rocket (Diplotaxis muralis)
Sand Rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Heliophila pusilla
Oval Purse (Hornungia procumbens was Hymenobolus procumbens)

Argentine Peppercress (Lepidium bonariense) is often found around granite rocks.
Common Peppercress (Lepidium africanum) is common in WA.
Field Cress (Lepidium campestre) has clasping stem leaves.
Garden Cress (Lepidium sativa)
Hoary Cress (Lepidium draba was Cardaria draba)
Lesser Swinecress (Lepidium didymum was Coronopus didymus)
Matted Peppercress (Lepidium pubescens)
Perennial Peppercress (Lepidium latifolium)
Virginian Peppercress (Lepidium virginicum)
(Lepidium oxytrichum)
(Lepidium perfoliatum)

Sweet Alyssum (Lobularia maritima)
Common Stock (Matthiola incana)
Night-scented Stock (Matthiola longipetala)
Muskweed (Myagrum perfoliatum) is not in WA.
Ball mustard (Neslia paniculata)

Cultivated Radish (Raphanus sativus).
Sea Radish (Raphanus maritimus).

Turnip Weed (Rapistrum rugosum)
Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum)
White Mustard (Sinapis alba) has white seed.
Charlock (Sinapis arvensis)

Sisymbrium altissimum is not in WA.
Smooth Mustard (Sisymbrium erysimoides)
London Rocket (Sisymbrium irio)
Hedge Mustard (Sisymbrium officinale)
Indian Hedge Mustard (Sisymbrium orientale)0
Sisymbrium runcinatum
African Turnip Weed (Sisymbrium thellungii) is not in WA.

Succowia balearica is in Kings Park in Perth.

Plants of similar appearance:

Wild Radish, Radish, Turnips and Mustards
Charlock (Sinapis arvensis) does not have petioles on the simple or toothed upper leaves and 8 or more red brown seeds in a pod with a conical beak that is shorter than the pod.

References:

Bodkin, F. (1986). Encyclopaedia Botanica. (Angus and Robertson, Australia).

Burbidge, N.T. and Gray, M. (1970). Flora of the Australian Capital Territory. (Australian National University Press, Canberra). P181

Cunningham, G.M., Mulham, W.E., Milthorpe, P.L. and Leigh, J.H. (1992). Plants of Western New South Wales. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P332. Photo.

Everist, S.L. (1974). Poisonous Plants of Australia. (Angus and Robertson, Sydney).

Harden, Gwen J. (1991). Flora of NSW. (Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney). Volume . P. Diagram.

Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Cousens, R.D., Dodd, J. and Lloyd, S.G. (1997). Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. (Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia). P120.

Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).

Lazarides, M. and Cowley, K. and Hohnen, P. (1997). CSIRO handbook of Australian Weeds. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #930.1.

Moerkerk, M.R. and Barnett, A.G. (1998). More Crop Weeds. R.G. and F.J. Richardson, Melbourne. P73. Diagrams. Photos.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.