Whiteflower Fumitory

Fumaria capreolata L. ssp. capreolata

Family: Papaveraceae (was Fumariaceae)

Names:

Fumaria is from the Latin fumus terrae meaning smoke of the earth and may refer to the smoky odour of some species in this genus or the smoky colour of some species when in flower.
Whiteflower Fumitory

Other names:

Climbing Fumitory
Ramping Fumitory
Rampant Fumitory (NZ).
White Fumitory.

Summary:

A hairless, climbing, weak stemmed annual vine with much divided leaves and small white flowers with blackish-red tipped petals in winter and spring.

Description:

Cotyledons:

Two.

Leaves:

Alternate.
Stipules -
Petiole - Yes.
Blade - Bright green, 2-3 times divided almost to the midrib into egg shaped to triangular segments, 5-15 mm long, usually 3 lobed. Hairless.

Stems:

Robust, climbing, trailing, angular, up to 1000 mm long. Hairless.

Flower head:

Raceme of up to 20 flowers that is shorter than the flower head stalk which is 150-500 mm long.

Flowers:

Somewhat tubular and narrow, 10 mm long x 2 mm wide. On stalks 4-5 mm long that bend down as the fruit matures.
Bracts - underneath flower are, narrowly egg shaped, 4-5 mm long, white with a darker mid-vein and narrowly egg shaped. They bend downwards as the fruit matures.
Ovary - Thread like style with 2 stigmas.
Sepals - 2, scale-like, flat, egg shaped, 4-6.5 long x 2-3 mm wide, usually with toothed edges.
Petals - 2 pairs, 9-12 mm long, . Usually white, rarely pinkish. Wings of upper petal and tip of inner petal blackish red to purple. Lower petal very narrow. Upper petal spurred or pouched. Hairless. Petals close together at their tips.
Stamens - 6. Opposite outer petals. Joined by their filaments into 2 bundles.
Anthers - 2 sets of 3. The middle one has 2 cells the outer ones have 1 cell.

Fruit:

Nut like achene or capsule with one seed. Smooth, globular, 2 mm diameter, obscurely keeled. On a downward curving stalk.

Seeds:

Roots:

Key Characters:

Whitish flowers with dark tips about 9-12 mm long with recurved pedicels and in loose racemes. Fruit indehiscent, smooth, obscurely keeled.

Biology:

Life cycle:

Annual. Flowers from July to November.

Physiology:

Reproduction:

By seed.

Flowering times:

Spring in western NSW.
August to November in SA.
July to October in Perth.
August to November in south west WA

Seed Biology and Germination:

Vegetative Propagules:

None.

Hybrids:

May hybridize with Wall Fumitory (Fumaria muralis).

Allelopathy:

Population Dynamics and Dispersal:

Origin and History:

Europe. Mediterranean.

Distribution:

NSW, QLD, SA, VIC, WA.

Courtesy Australia's Virtual Herbarium.

Habitats:

Climate:

Temperate.

Soil:

Plant Associations:

Significance:

Beneficial:

Detrimental:

Weed of cultivated areas, cereals, forage legumes, disturbed areas, shrub lands, granite outcrops and gardens.

Toxicity:

Suspected of poisoning stock.

Legislation:

None.

Management and Control:

Thresholds:

Eradication strategies:

Herbicide resistance:

Biological Control:

Related plants:

Bastard's Fumitory (Fumaria bastardii)
Common Fumitory (Fumaria officinalis)
Denseflower Fumitory (Fumaria densiflora)
Indian Fumitory (Fumaria indica)
Smallflower Fumitory (Fumaria parviflora)
Wall Fumitory (Fumaria muralis)

Plants of similar appearance:

Bleeding heart is an ornamental in the same genus.
Carrot weed has similar leaves but has yellow flowers.
Erodium and Storksbill have similar leaves but with hairs, the flowers are blue and they have corkscrew fruit.
Parsley Piert
Swinecress

References:

Auld, B.A. and Medd R.W. (1992). Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P172-173. Photo.

Black, J.M. (1965). Flora of South Australia. (Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia). P368.

Cunningham, G.M., Mulham, W.E., Milthorpe, P.L. and Leigh, J.H. (1992). Plants of Western New South Wales. (Inkata Press, Melbourne). P314. Photo.

Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Cousens, R.D., Dodd, J. and Lloyd, S.G. (1997). Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. (Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia). P164. Photo.

Lamp, C. and Collet, F. (1990). A Field Guide to Weeds in Australia. (Inkata Press, Melbourne).

Lazarides, M. and Hince, B. (1993). CSIRO handbook of economic plants of Australia. (CSIRO, Melbourne). #563.2.

Marchant, N.G., Wheeler, J.R., Rye, B.L., Bennett, E.M., Lander, N.S. and Macfarlane, T.D. (1987). Flora of the Perth Region. (Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Agriculture, Western Australia). P65, 69. Diagram.

Acknowledgments:

Collated by HerbiGuide. Phone 08 98444064 or www.herbiguide.com.au for more information.